Microbial is the biological study of a small organism that cannot be seen with naked human eyes; thus, they require magnification to be observed. The organisms are often less than one millimeter constraining the eye from well observing. Contamination occurs when foreign particles are introduced to the microorganism, making them lose their properties and proper functionality like reproduction and growth (Seviour & Nielsen 2010). Contamination makes the microorganism have other chemical properties that may alter the function of the microbial. Some of the ways used to control microorganisms include;
The use of phenolic is one of the common and widely used ways of antiseptic and disinfectant. This method was discovered in 1867 as scientists like Joseph Lister deployed the method during surgery operations to subside the risk of infection. Phenolics are advantageous for tuberculocidal; they are also effective when dealing with organic material and remains on the surface for a long time after application. Some of its advantages include a strong odor that makes the skin irritated (Benson, 1967). To control this contamination, doctors and other participants ensure that the compound is removed to the affected place by soap and water; this helps drain the chemical components away.
This is another group of disinfectants that contain an antiseptic that is most used to contaminate or cause impurity to the microorganism. Alcohols are bactericidal and sometimes fungicidal but lack the sporicidal. Alcohol destroys viruses and other agents that cause viruses (Zhang et al., 2015). Alcohol comes in two germicides: ethanol and isopropanol, which are used in about 70% to 80% in concentration. Alcohol also acts as a disinfectant because they denature proteins by dissolving the membrane lipids thus are used to disinfect thermometers and another small used instrument. Alcohol denature in about 10 to 15 minutes.
They came in two categories the iodine and chlorine. Iodine is often used as a skin antiseptic; it kills by oxidizing the cells’ concentration and iodinating cell proteins. Iodine destroys spores under a high concentration, thus being effective as an impurity to the microbial. Another category is chlorine; this is the most common disinfectant because it is used by the municipal for purifying water by causing an impurity to the microorganisms, thus killing them. With the use of chlorine, the death of microbial occurs within the first 30 minutes. Microbial killing by chlorine occurs in the first 30 minutes because organic material interferes with chlorine action by reacting with its components. Operators can control this by controlling the number of halogens that contaminate the microbial.
Heavy metals refer to metals such as mercury, silver, copper, and others used as antiseptics. Although in recent years, they have been replaced with less toxic metals, effective germicides (Schlegel, 1995). They act as impurities to the microorganism by combining with proteins in their sulfhydryl groups and deactivate them. Also, these metals precipitate cell proteins. Participants can control this by controlling the amount of these metals that interact with the microbial.
They come in the form of detergents, for they serve as wetting agents and emulsify for they both have polar hydrophilic and nonpolar hydrophobic ends. These property detergents solubilize the insoluble residues, thus having an effective cleaning power. The property makes them act as a contaminator to the microorganism. It can be controlled by regulating the amount of the microbial.
Benson, H. J. (1967). Microbiological applications; a laboratory manual in general microbiology.
Schlegel, H. G. (1995). Basic mechanisms of metabolism and energy conversion.
Seviour, R., & Nielsen, P. H. (Eds.). (2010). Microbial ecology of activated sludge. IWA publishing.
Zhang, C., Cui, F., Zeng, G. M., Jiang, M., Yang, Z. Z., Yu, Z. G., … & Shen, L. Q. (2015). Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs): a review of the environment’s occurrence, fate, and toxicity. Science of the Total Environment, 518, 352-362.
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