In criminal justice, the purpose of establishing a juvenile court is to consider rehabilitation and individualized treatment. However, between 1966 and 1975, the courts became more routine and began the “adult” process.
Focusing on the Landmark case of In re Gault (1967). Gerald “Jerry” Gault, a 15-year-old Arizona boy, was taken into custody for making obscene calls to a neighbor’s house. It involves a boy who became Detained for making obscene phone calls to neighbors’ houses. After the neighbors, Mrs. Cook filed a lawsuit, and Gott and his friends were taken to the juvenile detention center. He was detained, his parents were working, and the arresters did not make efforts to contact them. They finally learned of his whereabouts from the family of friends who were arrested with him.
When the habeas corpus hearing was held two months later, Mrs. Cook was not present, and no one was sworn in before testifying, nor did he take any notes. He was released and planned to reappear in a few months for the ruling hearing. In the subsequent interrogation, Mrs. Cook was absent again, and no official transcript of the procedure was recorded.
The official accusation is “making an obscene phone call.” The maximum penalty for charging an adult is a fine of $50 or imprisonment for no more than two months. Gault was found guilty and sentenced to 6 years in prison.
Gault’s parents filed a habeas corpus, which the Supreme Court finally heard. The Supreme Court ruled that juveniles are entitled to the right to due process when court proceedings may result in juveniles being confined to safety facilities. In this case, the specific due process rights highlighted included: Reasonable notice of fees, The right to defense, The right to face and cross-examine witnesses, and the and Privilege to prohibit self-incrimination.
The court held that the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment applies to juvenile defendants as well as adult defendants.
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