The need of risk management and evaluation.



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Risk Assessment Assignment

Student Name


Environment Science

Supervisor Name

7th May 2021








  1. Exposure assessment refers to the process of estimating, characterizing, modeling, and measuring the frequency, magnitude, duration of contact with agents, and the characteristics and number of population that is exposed.

The exposure pathway is how the Person comes in contact with hazardous substances. The three courses include inhalation, injection, or direct contact.


Persistence and lifecycle. Fate describes the eventual disposition of a chemical contaminant that may include long-term storage, destruction. This could be in exposure biotransformation or/and sink in human receptors or ecological receptors.  Knowledge of fate and transport allows for predictive capability for the development of institutional, administrative, and engineering controls, environmental monitoring validation,


Transport refers to processes that involve the movement of chemicals through environmental media. Several environmental media types include air, sediment, surface water, groundwater, soils, subsurface, the food chain.


Chemical processes: chemical processes will not respect boundaries. Exchanges will occur through various media.

Behavior aspects of receptors: the receptors maybe humans, fish; in some cases, a mechanism that controls availability to the organism will also affect the transport hence close relationship between fate and transport.

  1. Exposure to inhaled chemicals. Components of the respiratory system, interaction with toxins. Inhalation intake equation and variables

Chemicals may be released during industrial accidents. These may include phosgene, hydrogen sulfide, and nitrogen dioxide. In other cases, chemicals and gases may be part of chemical warfare. Exposure may have short-term or long-term impacts and, in some cases, cause disorders. The symptom will be dependent on the type of chemical and gas that has been used. Some may dissolve easily, while others may not. Others will trigger allergic responses (Abigail R. Lara, 2020).  The gases that do not dissolve easily will not show any quick signs

Components of the respiratory system (University of Rochester, 2021):

Pollutants can affect the following:

 Nose: in mild cases, there is irritation of the nose and mouth, while severe cases may affect functioning.

Mouth: the mouth is also a respiratory organ that will be affected.

Throat (pharynx); chemicals will irritate the throat.

And windpipe (air passages):

VoiceboxVoicebox (larynx)

Exposure to irritants lead to burning Laryngeal mucosa,

Windpipe: trachea

Severe burning

Large Airways (Brochi)

Soluble gases like chlorine, hydrofluoric acid, and ammonia can cause severe burning.

Small Airway (bronchioles)

Toxins can be deposited on airways leading to producing excretions. Chemical agents may trigger inflammation.

Gases can cause blockage of our body’s small airways, causing bronchitis

Lungs. : The effect can happen in any of the anatomical divisions of the lung (there are three). Chemical compounds may affect the respiratory system absorption in the lungs and into the bloodstream hence taking to the rest of the body. Some of these chemicals are ammonia, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and chlorine.

Inhalation of gases, mists, dust, and vapors is common. Gases may cause pulmonary edema, which is fluid accumulation in the lungs. Another condition may be hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

Chemical irritants

Asphyxiants: can cause unconsciousness and, in some instances, death by asphyxiation (suffocation). They are also commonly known as simple asphyxiant gas.

Toxic metals: toxins from poisonous metals that may include cadmium can sometimes be suspended in the air.

Gas exposure: natural gas may be harmful while inhaling. It produces compounds that may be harmful to our bodies.

Inhalation equation

ADD = Cair x InhR x ET x EF x ED/BW x AT

ADD = Average daily dose in mg/kg-day

Cair = contaminant concentration in air mg/m3

InhR = Inhalation rate in m3/hour

ET = Exposure time in day/hours

EF = Frequency of exposure days/year

ED = Duration of exposure in years

BW = Body weight in kgs

AT = Averaging time in days


  1. Toxicity criteria

Toxicity will be determined by the extent to which the chemical is absorbed by the body, the ability to detoxify, and the chemical structure. Toxicity refers to how much of a particular chemical is required to cause harm (Department of labor and industries-Califonia).

Caroline Dioxide:

Known for Cancer potency

Criteria: chronic Reference exposure levels


Chronic Rel

Chronic inhalation Rel: 0.6 μg/m3

Public Health Goal 0.001 mg/l

Antimony: found in alloys, cosmetics


California public health goals (OEHHA, 2005).

Cancer slope factor of arsenic


Found in fertilizers, household cleaning solutions, animal feed, explosives, and fertilizers.

Criteria: Chronic Reference Exposure levels μg/m3

Acute levels: 3200

The chemical targets the respiratory system in humans.



C – Concentration in water (mg/l) = 0.112

IR – intake Rate (kg/day) = 3l/day

EF – Exposure Frequency (days/year) = 30 x 365

Bw – Body Weight = 60 Kg

AT – Average Time (period over which exposure is averaged` = 63 x 365

CDI – Chronic Daily Intake

CDI     = [C x IR x EF x ED] / [BW x AT]

= [0.112 x 3 x 30 x 365] / [60 x 63 x 365]

= 0.0027 mg/l/day

Hazard Quotient HQ = CDI / Cancer slope factor

= 0.0027 / 1.5

HQ      = 0.0018

Since the Hazard Quotient HQ is less than 1, there is a very low likelihood that the villagers may have cancer due to arsenic concentrations in water.

Question 5

Allowable RSBL of Toluene

RfD Toluene = 0.2mg/Kg/day

IR = 2l/day

HQ x RfD = [RSBL x IR x EF x ED] / [BW x AT]

RSBL  = [HQ x RfD x BW x AT] / [IR x EF x ED]

For the maximum allowable concentration, HQ = 1, so

RSBL = [1 x 0.2 x 70 x 30 x 365] / [2 x 30 x 365]

= 7 mg/l

Toluene concentration that is allowable in that well should only go up to 7.0 mg/l. Once the concentration exceeds this level, one will need risk management and evaluation.


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