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            Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative musculoskeletal disease and one of the single most common joint diseases among individuals, with a prevalence of 70% in women and 65% in 65 years and above. The joint disease occurs when there is “wear and tear” of the cartilage pad that ends up causing erosion of the bone, which goes straight to the joint. OA is painful because after the cartilage is worn out, it leads to osteophytes and joint capsule breakdown growth. Additionally, it is crucial to note that OA occurs earlier in women, like Sally’s case, who is in her 50s. According to (Sharon L. Kolasinski, 2019), and an osteoarthritis is a form of arthritis that has affected over 302 million individuals worldwide and causes disability among senior or older adults.

Osteoarthritis treatment is broken down into several strategies to help individuals in recovery. The first line of therapy for OA includes reducing the negative or excessive impact on the affected joint; it, therefore, means that the first mode of treatment includes regular physical exercises supervised by a well-trained or professional physical therapist. The first line of OA treatment should primarily consist of specific and individualized physical exercises. The mechanism of action in the treatment of Osteoarthritis includes pain relief which requires the use of medicated drugs such as Acetaminophen and Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that are used for treating severe Osteoarthritis.

When the patient’s Osteoarthritis is mild, the doctors prescribe Acetaminophen, which does not cause any stomach irritation and reduces mild or moderate pain. In addition, when the Osteoarthritis is low or mild, patients are recommended to use Nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs such as meloxicam, Etedolac, Nabumetone, and Celecoxib. When the OA is high, you use Piroxicam, Ketorolac, Indomethacin, and Flurbiprofen, which all have side effects such as stomach upset and bleeding. Sally’s doctor prescribed Celecoxib under the Nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs, and sally has reported on her progress with the drug and concern about heart problems. Now Celecoxib, also called Celebrex, reduces the pain and inflammation in patients with Osteoarthritis.

Celecoxib is a generic drug inform of a capsule that reduces pain and inflammation by reducing and blocking cyclooxygenase enzyme that produces chemicals causing pain and inflammation. Some of the common side effects of using Celebrex include heartburns, vomiting, nausea, stomach pain, diarrhea, headache, dizziness, constipation, and respiratory tract infection. The respiratory tract infection, in this case, explains the heart problems that Sally expresses. The doctor or care provider handling sally should help her understand the extreme side effect of using Celebrex and advise her to take the dosage with caution (“Celecoxib: MedlinePlus drug information,” 2021).

According to (Sharon L. Kolasinski, 2019), Ibuprofen and Celecoxib, both non-steroidal inflammatory drugs, are similar in terms of some of the side effects, so doctors advise that when using Celebrex, a patient should avoid using ibuprofen. The difference between the two drugs is that ibuprofen blocks both Coxib (COX- 1) and Coxib 2(COX-2). The other difference between Celebrex and Ibuprofen is that Celebrex has higher chances of causing cardiac events than ibuprofen; in terms of gastrointestinal pain such as stomach ulcers, ibuprofen causes more of it to Celebrex. In conclusion, the efficiency of both ibuprofen and Celebrex are the same though it is dependent on the patient’s condition(“Celecoxib: MedlinePlus drug information,” 2021). Patients such as Sally with Osteoarthritis need to work closely with their doctors




Celecoxib: MedlinePlus drug information. (2021). MedlinePlus – Health Information from the National Library of Medicine.

Sharon L. Kolasinski. (2019). American College of Rheumatology/Arthritis Foundation Guideline for managing Osteoarthritis of the Hand, Hip, and Knee. American College of Rheumatology.



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