The impact of age on the female reproductive system



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Table of Contents

  1. Demonstration of knowledge and understanding. 2
  2. Knowledge and understanding. 2

Research design. 2

  1. Principles behind the circulation of academic knowledge. 2
  2. Demonstration of skills and abilities. 2
  3. Individual research ideas and its potential applicable quality to PhD.. 2
  4. Production of research work with consistent standard. 2

Communicating to the specialist and non-specialist audience. 2

Reference List 3




Digestive system


Overall function of each part

Gastrointestinal tract, digestive tract and gall bladder are the three main components of the digestive system (Rubio, 2018). With the involvement of peristalsis movement, the food moves through the GI or gastrointestinal tract while layer of muscles allowing the food to move and get pushed with the help of epiglottis, the folding of windpipe happens and that helps from chocking, and slowly pass that food into the oesophagus. In the oesophagus, peristalsis allow it to move further downward and reach lower oesophageal sphincter (Gavilán et al. 2019). This helps the food to get passed into the stomach while relaxing the muscles. With the help of the stomach muscles, the food particles get mixed up with the digestive juices and eventually and slowly empties its contents (chyme) into the small intestine (Nigam and Knight, 2017). The small intestines help the food to get mixed up with digestive juices form pancreas, liver and intestines and pushes further into the large intestine. The large intestines absorb the water from the undigested food particles, fluids and older cells and then transforms that into stools. Finally, that waste reaches the rectum and gets stored until the stools get pushed out of the body through anus during the bowel movement (Hryn et al. 2018).

Analysis of different digestive enzymes

Digestive enzymes Functions Analysis
Amylase Gets produced in mouth and helps break down the starches and carbohydrates and then transforming them into glucose (sugar) Helping the large starch molecules to get broken down into smaller sugar molecules (Rubio, 2018)
Pepsin/protease This enzyme gets produced in the stomach and it helps the protein from the food particles to get broken down into amino acids (Chaudhry and Bordoni, 2021) Being the main digestive enzyme attacking the proteins in the food particles, pepsin works when protein molecules reach the small intestines (Gavilán et al. 2019)
Trypsin This particular enzyme gets produced in the pancreas and it breaks down the Protein once the body collects it from the food particles Helping break down the protein, it helps and contributes to the overall improvement of protease/pepsin (Štrus et al. 2019)
Pancreatic Lipase This enzyme gets produced in the small intestines and the pancreas and it helps break down the fat (Nigam and Knight, 2017) Found to be in breast milk, this enzyme plays roles such as maintaining cellular health and long-terms energy storage (Aspinall et al. 2020)
Deoxyribonuclease and ribonuclease Gets produced in the pancreas and helps breaking the bonds in nucleic acids DNA-RNA The bonds in RNA and DNA gets broken by Deoxyribonuclease and ribonuclease


Looking at the action of one enzyme, summary of practical experimentation

In the classroom experiment, action of amylase would be monitored and observed with an experimentation test. The ingredients that will be required are Starch-agar plates where 0.2% soluble starch and 2% agar, wax pencils and water, distilled preferably (Hryn et al. 2018). During the experimentation, starch-agar plates will be prepared and would be left to get solidified and cold. Using the wax pencil, three plates will be labelled with the followings- soaked, boiled and dry seeds. Corn grain will be longitudinally cut and placed surface down onto the agar surface nearly 2 cm apart from each other (Gavilán et al. 2019). The next 25-30 minutes it will be incubated and the corn will be removed and the plates will be gently rinsed with the distilled water. Then the plates will be flooded with iodine solution and as the colour develops the results show that agar will stain deep purple where starch remained and the areas of the agar plates where it is covers with embryo, it will appear clear since the starch is broken down (Rubio, 2018).

Urinary system

Image of Kidney

Annotating the process of the formation of urine


Ultra-filtration is the process where with the involvement of hydrostatic pressure small molecules in tubular fluid are forced to get filtered. These small molecules contain glucose, amino acids, sodium chloride and urea (Ergin et al. 2017). Then from blood, these small molecules get move past the glomerular capsule and through the basement of membrane of Bowman’s capsule and reaches the renal tubules (Martins et al. 2019). This resulting fluid are in fact free of any sorts of large proteins and blood cells are known as glomerular filtrate or ultra-filtrate and the process in the formation of the urine system is known as ultra-filtration followed by selective reabsorption, transformation into urine and finally, excretion (Shirzadfar and Gordoghli, 2019).

Selective reabsorption

Selective molecules such as ions, amino acids and glucose get filtered in the ultra-filtration process out of the capillaries in the presence of nitrogenous waste substances such as the urea and then with that the water in the glomerulus gets duly reabsorbed from the filtrate as it passes through the nephron (Sampaio and Favorito, 2021). This entire process of selective reabsorption occurs in the proximal convoluted tubule aka PCT. The permeable quality of PCT allows the molecule to diffuse through it easily. During the process of selective reabsorption in the PCT, the pulling in process of other molecules occurred with the concentration gradient for the sodium process (Ren, 2019).


The excretion process is the last stage of the formation of urine where it gets pushed out of the body through bladder wall contraction, with the help of sphincter like ring muscles. By processing the blood in the kidney, the nephrons crate urine through the process of filtration, reabsorption and secretion (Wei et al. 2017). The excretion is the stage when that waste fluid gets its exit from the body. About 90% of the water and then with that 5% of the waste from the body, the nitrogen wastes excreted in urine water that includes ammonia, creatinine, urea and uric acid, different ions such as sodium, potassium, hydrogen, or even calcium are also excreted through urine solution (Ergin et al. 2017).

An explanation of the role ADH (Anti-Diuretic Hormone) plays in the process of osmoregulation

By controlling the amount of urine formation that would occur in the body, ADH or Anti-Diuretic Hormone helps keep the process in control where the body maintains water, electrolytes concentrations. These maintenance of the water and electrolytes concentration are occurred in a relatively constant level, the prices known as osmoregulation (Martins et al. 2019). By synthesizing the hypothalamus, and eventually getting secreted by posterior pituitary gland, the vasopressin or ADH helps with the overall process of osmoregulation. By signalling the molecules that in fact, controls the regulatory process, ADH okays a crucial role in the process of osmoregulation (Shirzadfar and Gordoghli, 2019). Occurring in the medulla of the kidney, osmoregulation process with the help of ADH hormones, helps the body to conserve water during low blood in body fluid volume. Hypothalamus allows it to be formed and stores and then eventually release it from the posterior pituitary (Sampaio and Favorito, 2021).

Reproductive system


Contrast and explanations the main regions of the male and female reproductive systems

The main regions of the male reproductive system are the penis, testis, scrotum, epididymis, prostate gland, spermatic chord, bulbourethral glands, the seminal vesicles while the regions of the female reproductive system are vagina, cervix, vulva, fallopian tubes, uterus, and the ovaries. The reproduction of the sperm occurs in the male reproductive system, which on being transferred into the female reproductive organ, gets fertilized and helps the reproduction to continue (García-Martínez et al. 2018). The fertilisation process occurs with the help of the regions of the female reproductive system by producing ovum aka eggs and fuse it with the male gamete, resulting in birth of new (Araújo et al. 2020). Located around the pelvis region, the male reproductive system allows the body temperature to stay maintained to keep the sperm healthy while the female reproductive organs are located on the inside, entirely and with entry-exit points at the vulva (Leisegang et al. 2019). The fallopian tubes of the female reproductive system transports ovum from the ovaries to the uterus where the fertilisation occurs, the ovaries are responsible for producing ovum and when once it is matured, it gets transferred into the fallopian tube (Schlegel and Katzovitz, 2020). The uterus holds an nourishes the foetus and also the place where fertilization occurs, finally vagina is the muscular tube that receives the sperm or male gamete through intercourse (Vidal, 2017). On the contrary, male reproduction system maintains, produce and transports sperm and semen by discharging them into the female reproductive tract it helps with the reproduction process. The male reproductive system controls all these with the production of male hormones and secreting the same (Wingerd and Taylor, 2020).

Analysis of the function for each structure

With the production of the male hormones and the secretion process of the same, the male reproductive system allows the male body to produce sperm and semen and keep the cycle going consistently, this cycle also allows to never completely run out of the male gamete (García-Martínez et al. 2018). By maintaining, producing and transporting sperm and semen, the male reproductive system discharges them into the female reproductive tract and helps with the overall reproduction process (Araújo et al. 2020). The female reproductive organs help the fertilisation process to occur by producing ovum aka eggs and fuse it with the male gamete. The overall aspect where ovaries are responsible for producing ovum and when once it is matured, it gets transferred into the fallopian tube (Leisegang et al. 2019). This is where the transportation of ovum from the ovaries to the uterus where the fertilisation occurs happen and, in the uterus, the overall aspect of nourishing the foetus and helping to grow eventually in fact occurs in the uterus (Schlegel and Katzovitz, 2020). The vaginal tract or the entry-exit point at the side of the vulva is the passage that receives male gamete during the intercourse process or discharges newly born babies out of the successful reproduction process (Vidal, 2017).





Reference List

Araújo, V.A., OLIVEIRA, M., Cortes, I.C.H., VITERI-D, J. and Dias, L.G., 2020. Morphology of the male reproductive tract in two species of phytophagous bugs (Pentatomidae: Heteroptera). J. Entomol. Zool. Stud8(2), pp.1608-1614.

Aspinall, V., Cappello, M. and Phillips, C., 2020. Digestive system. Introduction to animal and veterinary anatomy and physiology, pp.103-115.

Chaudhry, S.R. and Bordoni, B., 2021. Anatomy, thorax, esophagus. StatPearls [Internet].

Ergin, G., Kirac, M., Unsal, A., Kopru, B., Yordam, M. and Biri, H., 2017. Surgical management of urinary stones with abnormal kidney anatomy. The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences33(4), pp.207-211.

García-Martínez, S., Sánchez Hurtado, M.A., Gutiérrez, H., Sánchez Margallo, F.M., Romar, R., Latorre, R., Coy, P. and López Albors, O., 2018. Mimicking physiological O2 tension in the female reproductive tract improves assisted reproduction outcomes in pig. MHR: Basic science of reproductive medicine24(5), pp.260-270.

Gavilán, B., Sprecher, S.G., Hartenstein, V. and Martinez, P., 2019. The digestive system of xenacoelomorphs. Cell and tissue research377(3), pp.369-382.

Hryn, V.H., Kostylenko, Y.P., Yushchenko, Y.P., Lavrenko, A.V. and Ryabushko, O.B., 2018. General comparative anatomy of human and white rat digestive systems: a bibliographic analysis.

Leisegang, K., Henkel, R. and Agarwal, A., 2019. Obesity and metabolic syndrome associated with systemic inflammation and the impact on the male reproductive system. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology82(5), p.e13178.

Martins, P., Pinto, S. and André, A., 2019, June. Interactive demonstration of medical simulations using a virtual reality approach: Application to the male urinary system. In 2019 5th Experiment International Conference (exp. at’19) (pp. 251-252). IEEE.

Nigam, Y. and Knight, J., 2017. Anatomy and physiology of ageing 3: the digestive system. Nursing Times113(4), pp.54-57.

Ren, Y., 2019. A Mind Map Teaching Mode for Sports Anatomy based on 3DBody. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning14(10).

Rubio, C.A., 2018. Recent Studies on Digestive System Anatomy.

Sampaio, F.J.B. and Favorito, L.A., 2021. Basic Anatomy of Urinary Tract. Translational Research in Pediatric Urology, pp.17-26.

Schlegel, P.N. and Katzovitz, M.A., 2020. Male reproductive physiology. In Urologic Principles and Practice (pp. 41-62). Springer, Cham.

Shirzadfar, H. and Gordoghli, N., 2019. Study the Anatomy and Physiology of Body’s Urinary System and Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS) for the Design an Intelligent Alarm System for Monitoring of FMS. Journal of Clinical and Translational Urology1(1), pp.72-81.

Štrus, J., Žnidaršič, N., Mrak, P., Bogataj, U. and Vogt, G., 2019. Structure, function and development of the digestive system in malacostracan crustaceans and adaptation to different lifestyles. Cell and tissue research377(3), pp.415-443.

Vidal, J.D., 2017. The impact of age on the female reproductive system: a pathologist’s perspective. Toxicologic pathology45(1), pp.206-215.

Wei, W., Luo, W., Hu, Q., Zeng, L., Tang, H. and Wu, R., 2020. Dysplasia of Ovary Without Abnormal Development of Uterus and Urinary System: A Report of Four Cases.

Wingerd, B. and Taylor, P.B., 2020. The human body: Concepts of anatomy and physiology. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.


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