The Historical and Current Trends in Personality Theories
This paper explains the various theories of personalities, including the humanistic approach, trait theory, behavioral theory, and psychoanalytic theory. Based on the annotated bibliography in the week three project, this paper explains a depth humanistic perspective. Furthermore, it attempts to explain the historical context and the current trends regarding personality theory. Different scholars such as Abraham Maslow, Sigmund Freud, and carl rogers are some of the psychological theorists that are the pioneers of theories of personality, and they explain personality based on human behavior, nature, traits, personality theories with gender and environmental influences.
Psychology is the scientific study of how humans think, feel, and behave. This course will provide you an overview of the five essential perspectives that have affected modern psychology research. First, “Personality is the dynamic configuration of those psychophysical processes within an individual that impact his traits, behavior, and cognition.” Second, “Psychologists have investigated numerous elements of human behavior, such as personality, brain processes, and socio-cultural impacts since Wilhelm Wundt established the first psychology lab in 1879. Third, as psychology advanced, it began to address why we do what we do from various viewpoints, including biological, psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive, and humanistic viewpoints.
This paper is a qualitative literature review that focuses on personality theory, how they were developed, the historical and current trends associated with personality theory. For this purpose, literature and past studies are reviewed from authentic journals, books, conference proceedings, reports, websites, and different commentaries. In the following sections, relevant studies are summed up under headings of theories of personality, the major principles associated with personality theory, the historical context of personality theory development, personality theory concerning current trends, evaluate the development of Personality theory and context of gender and environmental influences. Finally, concluding remarks about the reviewed studies are stated in the end.
Humanistic psychology is a psychological movement that believes that people are unique. Therefore, psychologists should recognize and treat entities as such. The movement arose in opposition to the two prominent psychological trends of the 20th century, behaviorism and psychoanalysis. Humanistic ideals were put into reality during the “human potential” movement, which gained prominence in the 1960s in America. Humanistic psychologists assume that behaviorists are primarily concerned with the scientific analysis of individual choices as living creatures to separate fundamental aspects of people such as sentiments and reasoning persons. Still, much effort is expended in laboratory experiment practice that measures and reduces human behavior to figures. (Pincus et al., 2018) Humanists also disagree with psychoanalysis’s viewpoint, which claims that one’s formative experiences and aspirations affect one’s conduct. Instead, humanists are concerned with a person’s whole development regarding empathy, satisfaction, self-worth, and independence.
Abraham Maslow considered one of the pioneers of humanistic psychology, proposed a hierarchical sequence of needs or needs in decreasing order of importance but increasing sophistication: physiological requirements, safety, belongingness and love, esteem, and self-actualization. Once the individual’s most basic needs are met, may he or she go to higher levels in the hierarchy? For example, people who have acquired self-actualization are fully aware of their talents.
The concept of Most psychological theories places a high value on the person. For example, according to the “personal construct” theory George Kelly and the “self-centred” approach of Carl Rogers perceive the world through their encounters. This viewpoint impacts their psyche and drives people to guide their actions to satisfy the needs themselves. Rogers stressed that in the development of one’s personality, one strives for “self-actualization, self-maintenance (staying oneself), and self-enhancement (surpassing the status quo).”
Considering the ideas of Jean-Paul Sartre and other existential philosophers, many humanistic psychologists embraced an existential perspective on the value of existence. Ludwig Binswanger articulated the several “mechanisms” of becoming. (Pincus et al., 2018) The solo mode, as per Binswanger, seems to be the person who chooses to dwell inside themselves, the loner. When two people share feelings for each other, they enter the dual-mode. As a result, “you” and “I” become “We.” When a person interacts with another, he or she enters the plural mode eventually. Whenever a person loses himself in a group or detaches his sentiments from others, he enters the obscurity phase. Rollo May, an American existential psychologist, stressed people as creatures who encounter and are experienced. To May, being conscious of one’s demise allows for vigor and enthusiasm.
The other humanistic approach is Gestalt therapy, which has nothing in common with the early 20th practical school of Gestalt psychology. However, it has highlighted a positive perspective of humans and their ability to experience true joy. Finally, Eric Berne’s transactional analysis methodology is another effective treatment of the human potential movements goal is to help people acquire a strong feeling of maturity by learning to comprehend the “child” and “parent” aspects of their own and other people’s personalities. In 1962, the Association for Humanistic Psychology was established. (Pincus et al., 2018)
Psychologists have investigated numerous elements of behavior, including personality, brain processes, and socio-cultural impacts. As psychology advanced, it began to address why we do what we do from various viewpoints, including biological, psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive, and humanistic viewpoints. They then created five effective techniques that serve as the foundation for current psychological research. They are as follows:
Biopsychologists study how the nervous system, hormones, and genetic composition affect your behavior as an individual; therefore, Biological psychologists study the connection involving your states of mind and the brain, nerves, and hormones to help comprehend how your thoughts, moods and actions develop. So, what does this imply? It signifies that you are the sum of your components according to the biological perspective. Due to how your mind is designed and the demands of your body, you think the way you do. All of your decisions are influenced by your physical body.
The biological approach attempts to understand the healthy brain and explores the mind and body to uncover how diseases like schizophrenia originate from genetic underpinnings.
Sigmund Freud campaigned for the psychodynamic method, thinking that sex influences many of our motivations. Psychologists in this school of thought believe that unconscious wants and memories drive your early habits and that conflict arises when societal limits are put on these wants.
(Allemand & Flückiger, 2017) states that there are various notions about Freud and his now largely debunked notions. Childhood experiences affect who you are now. Assume you relate your smoking addiction to an oral fixation induced by being weaned too early as a child. That, too, is drawn from Freud’s theories, and it is a concept that has changed our perception of ourselves.
Behavioral psychologists believe that external environmental cues influence your behavior and that you may have been conditioned to behave in a certain way B.F. Skinner, as well as other psychologists, oppose free will. Instead, they believe that learning occurs through a system of reward and punishment. (Allemand & Flückiger, 2017) When you don’t care what other people think about obtaining the intended result, the behavioral approach is quite successful. These ideas impact us each day and over our lives, influencing anything, including why we obey the traffic laws when driving to how advertisement corporations design campaigns to encourage us to purchase their goods.
As opposed to behaviorists, cognitive psychologists think that your beliefs and feelings shape your actions. Theorists would suggest that you recall things depending on something you already comprehend. You also tackle difficulties using your recall of previous experiences in this viewpoint. We move away from individuals as robots devoid of free will and toward ideas and feelings. Internal processes govern how you operate, and there is a lot more pressure on individuals. For example, from a cognitive standpoint, your expectations of an impending party will influence how you feel and act while there, as well as how you remember the night after you come home.
Humanistic psychologists think that you are fundamentally sound and that you want to reach your most significant potential. This group of There are various notions about Freud and his now largely debunked notions. Childhood experiences affect who you are now. Assume you relate your smoking addiction to an oral fixation induced by being weaned too early as a child. That, too, is drawn from Freud’s theories, and it is a concept that has changed our perception of ourselves. (Pincus et al., 2018) Whether you are right or wrong, you are obligated to be the best person you can be. All of your decisions are motivated by a desire to improve your life. Assume you’re trying to cut back on your evening wine consumption. In such instances, a humanistic therapist will be supportive and supportive but will not instantly interfere with persuading you to stop drinking or figure out how and why you drink.
Development of personality
Personality development is the formation of a structured pattern of actions and attitudes that distinguishes a person. Personality development is the result of a continual interplay between temperament, character, and environment.
In his vast experience in psychotherapy with children and adolescents, Costa et al., 2019 presented an illuminating analysis of how personality develops in 1956 and teenagers from working-class, upper-class, and average families. According to (Costa et al., 2019), an individual’s socialization process consists of eight stages, followed by a psychosocial crisis that must be resolved if the person is to handle the following successfully and succeeding stages. The phases have a substantial impact on personality development, with five of them happening throughout childhood.
A newborn passes through the first stage of development throughout the first two years of life: Learning Basic Trust or Mistrust (Hope). When a newborn is well-nurtured and loved, he or she learns to trust, security, and fundamental optimism. Conversely, when a newborn is mistreated, he or she develops insecurity and “fundamental distrust.”
The second stage occurs in early childhood, between 18 months and two years, and three to four years. It is concerned with Learning Autonomy or Shame (Will). When a kid is well-parented, he or she emerges from this stage with self-confidence, thrilled with his or her newly discovered control. However, depending on the kid, the early stages of this period may also involve tempestuous tantrums, stubbornness, and negativism. (Costa et al., 2019)
The third stage occurs during the “play age,” or the later preschool years between three and admission into formal school. Learning Initiative or Guilt (Purpose) is experienced by the developing youngster. The kid learns to utilize his or her imagination, develop his or her talents via active play and fantasy, work with others, and lead and follow. If the youngster is unsuccessful, he or she grows scared, cannot join groups, and feels guilty. As a result, the youngster is overly reliant on people and is limited in developing play skills and creativity.
The fourth stage, Learning Industry or Inferiority (Competence), occurs through the school years, up to and maybe including junior high school. Then, the youngster learns more traditional skills, such as interacting with classmates according to rules. Advancing from free play to activity that is governed by rules and necessitates collaboration (team sports), developing fundamental intellectual capabilities (reading, arithmetic) Every year, the requirement for self-discipline grows at this point. The youngster who is trustworthy, autonomous, and full of initiative resulting from successful passage through earlier phases will rapidly learn to be productive. On the other hand, the mistrusting youngster will have doubts about the future and will feel inferior. (Costa et al., 2019)
The fifth stage, Learning Identity or Identity Diffusion (Fidelity), occurs throughout adolescence, beginning around 13 or 14. Maturity begins to emerge at this period; the young person develops self-assurance rather than self-doubt and explores many constructive roles rather than embracing a lousy identity, such as criminality. The well-adjusted teenager looks forward to success, and in later adolescence, a distinct sexual identity emerges. Adolescents seek leadership (someone to inspire them) and progressively establish a set of principles to follow.
Carl Rogers, a well-known psychologist, highlighted the importance of formative events in shaping one’s personality. Many psychologists feel important moments in forming a kid’s personality—periods when the youngster is more susceptible to particular environmental stimuli. For example, most specialists feel that a kid’s familial experiences are significant for his or her personality development, if not precisely as defined by Erikson’s phases, but in accord with the relevance of how a kid’s needs should be fulfilled in the family setting. For example, children who are potty trained too early or too severely may become rebellious. Another example is youngsters who learn acceptable sex conduct when they have a strong relationship with their same-sex parents.
According to (Henriques, 2017) One of the dimensions used to define human personality in the Five-Factor Model is openness to experience. Active imagination (fantasy), esthetic sensitivity, awareness of inner sentiments, appreciation for diversity, and intellectual curiosity are all characteristics or characteristics of openness. In addition, a considerable lot of psychometric research has shown that specific characteristics or traits are significantly correlated. As a result, openness may be considered a global personality characteristic composed of a collection of distinct qualities, habits, and dispositions that cluster together.
Conscientiousness is the attribute of being cautious or watchful. Conscientiousness suggests a desire to do a task correctly and to take one’s responsibilities to others seriously. In contrast to the easygoing, conscientious people are efficient and structured. They have a propensity to be self-disciplined, obedient, accomplishment-focused, and typically dependable. It is exhibited by orderly and methodical conduct and meticulous, attentive, and intentional in their approach to self and others. (Henriques, 2017) Conscientious people are often hardworking and dependable. They will also most likely be conformists. They may also be “workaholics, perfectionists, and obsessive in their conduct” if carried to an extreme. People with low conscientiousness tend to be more relaxed, less goal-oriented, and less driven by achievement; they are also more prone to participate in antisocial and illegal activity.
The extraversion–introversion characteristic is an essential aspect of human personality theory. Carl Jung promoted extraversion and introversion, albeit both the people’s awareness and psychological usage deviate from his original meaning. Extraversion is characterized by extroverted, conversational, and energetic conduct. In contrast, introversion is characterized by more quiet and lonely Jung identified two general attitudes characterized by the direction of libido flow. When the flow of libido is not near an individual, extraversion is employed, and the person is called an extrovert. When a person’s libido is directed inside, the condition is called introversion, and the person is called an introvert. These are the two temperamental types.
Introversion and extraversion are commonly seen as a single continuum, with being high in one implying being low in the other. Each of us has an extraverted and introverted side, with one being more prominent than the other. Rather than focusing on interpersonal conduct, Jung described introversion as an “attitude-type marked by life orientation through a focus on one’s inner psychic activity. (Henriques, 2017), Defining extraversion as “an attitude type defined by a focus on the external object” (focus on the outside world).
Individual behavioral qualities that are seen as kind, empathetic, cooperative, warm, and considerate are manifestations of agreeableness. One of the five critical dimensions in current personality psychology is agreeableness. Individual differences in cooperation and social harmony are reflected in the structure, reflecting individual differences in cooperation and social harmony. (Henriques, 2017)
People with a high agreeableness score are empathic and generous, whereas those with a low agreeableness score are selfish and lack empathy. Those with low levels of agreeableness exhibit behaviors such as manipulating and competing with others rather than collaborating.
Agreeableness is regarded as a superordinate trait, meaning it is a statistically significant collection of personality sub-traits. For example, trust, straightforwardness, altruism, obedience, modesty, and tender-heartedness are low-level qualities categorized under agreeableness.
In the field of psychology, neuroticism is one of the five primary higher-order personality qualities. Individuals with high neuroticism are more prone than the general population to be moody and experience anxiety, worry, fear, wrath, frustration, envy, jealousy, guilt, and feelings of depression and loneliness. Neurotic people react more negatively to stimuli and are more inclined to see everyday events as dangerous and minor disappointments as insurmountably harsh. They are frequently self-conscious and introverted, and they may struggle with restraining cravings and deferring satisfaction.
People with high neuroticism indices are more likely to develop and experience the beginnings of common mental diseases like Mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and drug use disorders are all examples of neurotic symptoms.
The historical context of personality theory development
Personality is inherited as much as cultivated. For example, a child’s personality might be shaped by the views of his or her parents. Nature and nurture interact to play a significant part in shaping an individual’s personality; our personality is determined by our experiences in the environment, which are braided around the genetic matrix. Personality is described as “deeply ingrained patterns of behavior that encompass how one connects to, perceives, and thinks about the world and oneself.” Personality characteristics are significant parts of personality and do not imply disease. (Bedford&Yeh, 2019)
Looking at the previous personality theory, we can see specific trends in how theorists articulated personality and how society views personality. Biology was formerly the most significant source of information. The bulk of early theorists had backgrounds in medicine and the physical sciences, and personality was seen biologically. Freud seems to diverge from this trend, providing us with a more psychological image of human nature that might reflect why he is generally referred to as the “Father of Modern Psychology.” The behaviorist approach quickly followed, implying that we had greater control over our personalities or at least the power that others had over us through reward and instruction.
According to (Bedford&Yeh, 2019) The humanistic approach originated in the United States during a period of war and demonstrations. While individuals were grappling with their convictions about man’s goodness, Maslow and Rogers provided their theories on the hierarchy of needs. It was a positive approach that enabled us to move on from the past and look forward to a brighter future. Unfortunately, humanism began to decline in the 1980s, maybe because it was absorbed into other ideologies rather than its inherent flaws. However, it is now widely understood that unconditional positive regard, a focus on the positive in others, and building a positive relationship are all inextricably linked.
Finally, with the rise of individualism in the United States and the belief that we have control over our fate, cognitivism emerged as an essential topic in psychological thought. Kelly and Beck paved the way for us to understand how our world perceptions are more important than facts about reality. Id it a fundamental. We may alter our perception of the situation by changing our viewpoints and, as a result, our actions. You will notice another shift in psychology today if you read the news, watch television, or listen to the advertising. The current trend looks to be a return to biological theory. (Bedford&Yeh, 2019)We will do more extensive brain research when new medications are developed, and technology progresses. We look at psychology from a biological perspective once more. People want a quick fix, and they want it now. Why endure withdrawal symptoms when we may take medicine or use a patch to help us quit smoking? Why go through months of treatment when a single medication a day can keep the blues at bay? A biological approach is used to treat situational diseases such as PTSD and social phobia.
Gender and Personality
Gender norms (the behaviors that males and females are expected to follow within a particular society) may also influence personality by emphasizing different traits across opposing sexes, implying that cultural norms influence personality and conduct.
Ideas on appropriate behavior for each gender (masculinity and femininity) fluctuate among cultures and develop throughout the time the United States; aggression and aggression, for example, have generally been touted as positive masculine personality traits. Meanwhile, submissiveness and caring have traditionally been regarded as desirable feminine traits. While certain gender expectations do not change over time, others do. In 1938, for example, one in every five Americans believed that a married woman should not work. Nonetheless, by 1996, four out of every five Americans favored women working in these fields. This type of attitude adjustment has been accompanied by behavioral changes that correlate to changes in trait expectations and changes in personal identity in both males and females.
Environment and personality
Is our personality hereditary, or are we the result of our surroundings? This is the classic nature vs. nurture dispute. Are we born with a specific temperament, a genetically programmed way of interacting with people, particular skills, and various behavioral patterns over which we have no control? Or are we molded by our experiences, by what we learn, think, and how we interact with others?
Many psychologists nowadays find this discussion funny because the answer is usually both! Our DNA determines the spectrum of possibilities that we are born with; we can be a specific height, have a specific I.Q., be timid or outgoing, be Black, Asian, White, or Hispanic, and so on because of our genetic make-up. However, the environment might have had a significant impact on how our genetic make-up manifests. For example, a mistreated youngster may become quiet and withdrawn while being genetically predisposed to be more extroverted. A kid whose mother misused alcohol while pregnant may develop fetal alcohol syndrome, the most significant cause of avoidable mental impairment, even if the kid was genetically predisposed to it with the capability of being clever. So the easiest way to look at it is that our genetic make-up gives a range of options for our lives, and our environment dictates where we fall within that range.
Culture is another important environmental component. When researchers compared cultural groups for distinct personality types, they discovered some significant variances. For instance, Individualistic cultures, such as those seen in Northern European countries and the United States, place a more significant premium on individual wants and successes. Asian, African, Central American, and South American nations have more community-centered cultures that emphasize belonging to a broader group, such as a family or nation. Cooperation is regarded to have more desirable competition, which will inevitably impair personality development.
The first question is whether it is feasible to integrate all of the diverse theories of personality into one big theory; however, this does not appear to be achievable at the time. Therefore the idea is to think that all of these theories provide distinct degrees of explanation. Some theories consider individual variances in people’s objectives, objectives, and meaning, and so These are the levels of explanation knowledge. (Kostromina et al., 2018) Some theories focus on individual differences in thinking and processing and, as a result, are cognitive. Eventually, some theories examine individual variations at the physical and neurological levels. The second challenge in personality psychology is its acceptance as a discipline in psychology, which is partly due to how the course is taught. Personality psychology is typically taught at the university level utilizing the time trial of the tombstone technique, which involves providing a comprehensive guide to the lives and theories of bright but long-deceased personality theorists. Unfortunately, this approach leads to the belief that personality psychology is out of date and that its ideas are no longer practical. It has been long gone.
A further justification for the complexity in garnering support for personality psychology is a critique by Walter Mitchell. He stated that there is little evidence for cross-situational coherence in people’s behavior, which means that there appears to be little evidence for the constructed personality. Their environment largely determines people’s behaviors. (Kostromina et al., 2018) Years of research have shown that Michael’s claim is false and that there is regularity in people’s behaviors across situations, owing mainly to their personality. Another reason is that personality psychologists frequently overlook the need to highlight the usefulness of personality psychology; they fail to answer questions such as “what is the value of this?” and “how will this improve my life?” how will this improve my life how does this help us understand and improve the human condition a third issue in personality psychology is the insularity among personality psychologists themselves for example those studying the big five usually think it is more critical to the field of personality versus the topic of attachment which many personality psychologists consider to be unrelated to personality a fourth cutting-edge issue in personality psychology is the connection between a person’s traits and their biology evidence is now beginning to accumulate that shows the connection between personality traits and the function of our brains a fifth issue in personality psychology are the implications of new technology to the study of personality another exciting trend in the study of personality are the emergence of new
technologies that allow the expression in the study of personality, for example, Facebook posts can be studied as an expression of the personality. The sixth issue in personality psychology is that gradually there is a realization of studying individual differences in moral and ethical behaviors. It is essential to understand these because it has such a significant implication in our societies.
According to(Kostromina et al., 2018), another current trend is the importance of focusing not only on personality pathology but also on the strengths and virtues of the human personality. What character strengths cause people to live seemingly extraordinary lives, and how can we develop them? Finally, the eighth issue is the importance of understanding culture and its influence on personality. Even though many theories claim that they have cross-cultural applicability, it is essential to focus on individual differences resulting from culture, and there you have it. I hope this brief overview and introduction to the view the personality psychology and its current issues have shown you what a vibrant, exciting, and relevant field of study personality psychology is. It is the potential to help people learn how to live better lives.
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