Table of Contents
Stakeholders Needs and Expectations. 6
Five Critical Success Factors. 8
Value management is a collection of techniques and procedures for determining the best mix of expected benefits versus project financial costs. It is the practice of developing, evaluating, and designing a project such that the best possible combination of gains, challenges, and expenses can be achieved (Stoker, 2006). The ability to increase the probability of delivering goals and objectives and generating value is enabled by project value management. A project manager must objectively evaluate and assess all projects, operations, and procedures to decide if more outstanding value options or alternatives are required and make appropriate choices (Stoker, 2006). The managing project value is an ongoing practice of improvement; simultaneously, the techniques and strategies of this system are not aimed at lowering costs; they do strive to achieve the desired quality of the project result during the project execution. The key goal is to maximize project value while staying within time, expense, and schedule baseline. Since threats are so crucial in cost, time, and quality control, the value management process should consider them as well. The fact that value management emphasizes the desired result of a project is a distinguishing factor between it and several other methods (PMI, 2017). The mechanism only addresses how the work will be presented until it has been identified, recognized, decided upon, and described. The results are outlined in a definition of project goals articulated in terms of anticipated project outcomes. These are connected by ‘value drivers,’ which are characterized as a conceptual feature required to fully produce the intended gains from a program, similar to a central role to the design purpose.
The advantages of a value management process are often discussed in higher quality and lower costs. On the other hand, the ‘unseen’ benefits may be just as beneficial, if not more so. The project will meet the client’s needs and be completed within the applicable criteria if there is agreement and shared understanding among participants, result, lower risk of scope changes, and enhanced communications. Value management can be a low-cost, high-reward endeavour. Due to the extreme minimal need for additional evaluations when incorporated into the project management approach early in the project life cycle, the cost can become almost insignificant (Thiry, 2001).
Karl Weick coined the word “sensemaking,” which refers to how we organize the unfamiliar to function in it. Sense-making entails developing a realistic interpretation of a changing world map, putting it to the test with others through data collection, intervention, and discussion, and then modifying or dismissing the map based on its credibility (Ancona, 2012.). Leaders may use sensemaking to understand what is going on in their societies, which helps them with other leadership roles like strategic planning, communicating, and designing. “Sensemaking is a transit point on the path to a mutually built, organized method of intervention,” as described more succinctly and elaborately (Taylor and Van Every 2000). At that point, events are “transformed into a condition that can be expressed clearly in words and acts as a stepping stone for a response. Sensemaking is an essential element in transformation because it helps various stakeholders involved in or affected by the shift to make sense of the situation. The [change] beneficiaries should, in theory, establish a common grasp of the context, create a strategic procedure, and identify a shared outcome. Sensemaking processes begin as soon as the need for adjustment is recognized, and they are an essential aspect of the transformation operation (PMI, 2017). The four steps of sensemaking are; stakeholder analysis, functional analysis, defining critical success factors and defining key performance indicators (KPI).
Stakeholder Analysis: the step entails identifying the project stakeholders, identifying their level of contribution and impact on the project and ranking them to give the highest priority.
Functional analysis: the second step of sensemaking entails identifying and defining the stakeholders’ needs and expectations from the project and describing how each stakeholder will benefit from the project’s results (Kjærgaard and Karlheinz 2007).
Defining Critical Success Factors (CSF): the critical success factors of the project determine which outcomes are vital for the project to be considered a success, and the consequences are prioritized. The identification of the essential success factors helps the project leaders in the process of decision making.
Defining Key Performance Indicators (KPI): the last phase of the sensemaking process defines the KPIs. The projects key performance indicators enable the project manager to quantitatively measure the outcomes of the projects (Kjærgaard and Karlheinz 2007).
|NHS Local Trust||· A system that can help keep up with the changing health landscape.
· Ability to audit the entire healthcare system
· Reduction in time spent to get healthcare
|· Meet the national health standards
· Improved healthcare services.
· Higher level of accountability.
· Ability to monitor and evaluate different areas of healthcare service in real-time.
· Keep up with the changing social clinical landscape.
· Reduce the amount of time taken to receive healthcare services.
|Program Manager||· Aligning outputs to the project outcomes
· Sufficient Budget
|· The outputs activities carried out will help achieve the desired project outcomes.|
|Project Manager||· Availability of funding
· Proper legislations by the relevant authorities
· Strict scheduling
· No outside interference from politicians
|· The project managers expect that funding for the project will be budgeted for and availed in time.
· Politicians will not try and interfere with the project by setting unrealistic timelines.
· The project activities will meet the deadline.
|Local Service Provider||· Develop a system that is easy to use.
· The system should be able to store large size of data.
· Develop a system that centrally stores medical information and accessed by authorized personnel.
|· The stakeholders will have an easy time using the system.
· The system will be able to store a large amount of data without compromising or losing.
|NHS Patients||· Access to the EPR system
· Secure personal information
|· Ease in booking an appointment and using the system
· No leakage of personal health information
· Medical results are communicated faster.
· Ease in the transfer of the medical prescription to the pharmacy.
|The public||· Access to EPR secondary data
· Assess the performance of various healthcare service providers
|· The system will have secondary data obtained from EPR, and they will be able to assess the performance of healthcare providers.|
|Suppliers and Contractors||· Procurement contracts||· Long term engagement|
|Healthcare Professionals||· A system where they can access a patient’s medical history.
· Secure storage of patient’s medical history.
· Transfer patient’s prescription to a pharmacy
· Help in delivering better and efficient healthcare
|· Accurate and reliable medical information of the patient.
· The system will improve the delivery of healthcare services.
· It will be possible to transfer and send medical prescription through the system.
· The system will be secure to hold considerable information on patients and reduce the paperwork.
|NHS Managers and Planners||· Relevant information that will help in planning and budgeting
· Efficient storage and sharing of medical information.
|· The information will help allocate resources needed in healthcare.
· The system will solve the issue of medical information storage
· Medical information transfer and sharing among health professionals will be easy and fast
|Insurance Companies||· Access to EPR secondary information||· Ease in the transfer of electronic medical information.|
Critical Success Factors, according to Rockart, are: “The project’s competitive success will be ensured by the small number of areas in which outcomes, if adequate, will guarantee good cutthroat efficiency they are the few critical places where everything must go smoothly for the project to succeed. If these areas do not produce satisfactory results, the project’s activities for the duration would be less than ideal.” The objective and operational priorities of your company determine the Critical Success Factors. CSFs “drill down” through these goals to get to the core of what you’re trying to accomplish and how you’ll do it. You can also create Key Performance Indicators once you’ve defined your CSFs (KPIs) (Bergeron, 2018). Defining Critical Success Factors allows project managers to monitor and evaluate the project’s progression toward fulfilling strategic objectives and, eventually, completing its purpose. They often serve as a shared benchmark, guaranteeing that everyone understands what’s essential and that assigned tasks are coordinated through workgroups.
The Critical Success Factors for the National Programme for IT in the United Kingdom will be;
Budgetary allocation, support from the government, health professionals and NHS patients; will be noted by the adaptability and how fast the programme is adopted. The third CSF will have to do with the ease with which the system will electronically transfer medical document. Continuous improvement is another CSF. Is the system able to adapt to the advancement in technology, or will it be obsolete in years to come? The last identified CSF will have to do with the issue of information confidentiality. If the system can protect the patients’ information and secure them from cyber-attacks, that will be a significant success factor (Sidek and Martins, 2017).
An effective quality model is made with the customer’s satisfaction in consideration. Methods, systems, stakeholder, and infrastructure must keep the project aligned with its objectives and actions to meet those objectives. These strategies also result in a more significant customer satisfaction rate because businesses have created goods, services, and programs that satisfy consumers and often ensure that they receive what they pledged regularly.
|Step in Quality Model||Description||Implementation in NPiIT|
|Identify Internal and External Customers||It is essential to identify the internal and external customers who will make the program work. The customers will be a reference point when ensuring quality.||The identified customers were the NHS, Patients, Medical Professionals and local health providers.|
|Identifying Requirements||The definition of the project’s priorities and targets is the first step in the quality management model. Every stakeholder must be aware of the project’s expected results and the issue that the project is intended to solve. The mission, purpose, and benefits of the project define the goals and objectives. All stakeholders should be given a detailed overview of the company’s vision, purpose, principles, and objectives. The first critical stage is understanding the project’s priorities and how the intended project results match the project’s desired outcomes.||In the National Programme for IT case, the need to meet the political, financial, and economic requirements. The main requirement of the project was; streamline the healthcare system, cut costs of healthcare, and increase performance, adopt a centralized approach to IT distribution to avoid incompatibility.|
|Specifications||The next step will have the project requirement into specific measures to guide the project’s performance that will help decide the project is a success or a fail. The specification guide compares the results with the stakeholders’ needs and desires and if these needs were fulfilled.||In the case of the National Programme for IT, the project manager will identify success factors, and stakeholders’ satisfaction will be the basis for measuring the project results. Information confidentiality, ease in the provision of healthcare, and reduction in healthcare costs will be used to measure the project’s success.|
|Quality Assurance||Identifying project requirements and later defining the project’s specification ensures that the project manager can assure the quality of the project. The needs of the projects determine what the project requires to meet, and the projects specification defines how the project will be able to achieve that. A combination of both processes guarantees the quality of the project.||In the case of the National Project for IT, we will have to define the project’s specification; this will be; a straightforward interface that will make people adopt the system. A complete proof system that is secure from cyber hacking. The ability of the system to store a large amount of data and ease in transferring the data from one health professional to another. Once the project manager has defined these specifics, they will draw a roadmap of how the project will attain them. Later, The project manager will weigh the results of the project against the needs of each stakeholder.|
|Quality Assurance Plan||The next step involves the project manager coming up with a comprehensive timeline and schedule of implementation that will include activities to make up the quality assurance plan. The quality assurance plan will consist of the project’s requirements, the specification and what should be done, and how these activities should follow each other. The people to be involved in the execution are also identified and given specific timelines and responsibilities.||In the National Project of IT case, the project manager should develop a project schedule listing what the identified individuals should execute activities and the deadline. Also, the project manager will determine the contractors and suitable suppliers that will help deliver a quality platform.|
|Quality Control/ Quality Management||The project manager defines project activities, conducts stakeholder analysis, and aligns the project activities to meet the stakeholder’s needs and expectations.||The project team would ensure that the project outcomes are of high quality if the programme could meet the clients’ security needs; the confidentiality of patients medical information. Ease in sharing knowledge; was the programme able to streamline the provision of healthcare service. Lastly, did the stakeholders adopt the use of the platform and was it easy for them to use the forum.|
|Continuous Improvement||The project team should use the customers’ feedback and other stakeholders need in improving. Also, the external environment may inform the need for improvement.||The project manager and team should ensure that the programme is improved. Since the programme involves IT infrastructure, the team should ensure that it is up to date not become obsolete.|
A Balanced Scorecard is a project management technique that involves executing and managing project strategy by striking a balance between the monetary indicators and performance indicators (Chavan, 2009). A balanced scorecard is regarded as an instrument that helps in the efficient management of a project. A project’s Key Performance Indicators (KPI) are utilized in quantifying the scorecard once developed. The information obtained from KPIs is used to assess the progress and outcomes of the project and later used to compare the results against the set objectives of the project. (Bergeron, 2018).
In the case of the National Project for IT, the key performance indicators for the project will include;
Adaptability: one primary KPI for the project will be the ability of the stakeholders to adapt to the new system. If the system proves to be challenging to adapt to, then it means that the project has failed to deliver.
Healthcare streamlining: at the end of the project implementation activities, the project should see that the healthcare services in the United Kingdom are streamlined and that it is now easier to offer health service to the public. Also, another KPI involves the ability of medical information to be stored and transferred with ease electronically without compromise.
Confidentiality: the security of the medical information is of paramount importance and significance to the project’s success. The system should be hacker-proof, and patients should safe that their medical information will not fall into unauthorized people.
Cost: the project should reduce the cost of healthcare both on the patient’s side and the government side. The two stakeholders should be able to see a reduction in the amount they spend on healthcare. The reduction of cost will be one of the KPI.
Timeline: the manner and time the project will be delivered will also account as part of the KPI. Since time is of the most importance, the project manager should ensure that the project meets all its deadlines.
Ancona, D., 2012. Sensemaking: Framing and acting in the unknown. The Handbook for teaching leadership: knowing, doing and being.
Ashaye, O. & Irani, Z., 2019. The role of stakeholders in the effective use of e-government
Bergeron, B.P., 2018. Performance management in healthcare: from key performance indicators to balanced scorecard. Routledge.
Chavan, M., 2009. The balanced scorecard: a new challenge. Journal of management development.
Hughes, S., 2010. Five critical success factors for project managers. NC State University. Available.
Kjærgaard, Annemette & Kautz, Karlheinz & Nielsen, Peter. (2007). Making Sense of Project Management – A Case of Knowledge Management in Software Development.. 22. 565-575.
PMI, 2017. A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK guide). 6th ed. Project Management Institute. Resources in public services. International Journal of Information Management, Volume 49, pp. 253-270.
Sidek, Y.H. and Martins, J.T., 2017. Perceived critical success factors of electronic health record system implementation in a dental clinic context: an organizational management perspective. International journal of medical informatics, 107, pp.88-100.
Stoker, G., 2006. Public value management: a new narrative for networked governance?. The American review of public administration, 36(1), pp.41-57.
Thiry, M., 2001. Sensemaking in value management practice. International Journal of Project Management, 19(2), pp.71-77.
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