SOCIAL MEDIA AND ITS IMPACT ON BODY IMAGE
Various studies have been done in the previous literature on body image and beauty. The incidence of social media and technology has continued to affect the entire world due to globalization. Therefore, social media influences on different factors have been felt across borders due to exchange in culture and globalization.
It is debatable whether social media influence the beliefs in self-efficacy or the actions of an individual. Body image is composed of or involves one’s own body and the attitude, feelings, and thoughts. According to previous studies (Tiggemann, 2009), women and their body image can be mainly attributed to social media pressure and mainstream media presentations. The main problem is the self-image which most women see themselves in the media; most women tend to react or respond to these images in social media. The women form negative body dissatisfaction by the way or due to the images they see on social media where they feel like they lack certain qualities and features that they should have to fit well in society.
The primary human needs responses warrant the different individuals or human beings learn many human learning behaviours through behaviour psychology (learning theory). Some of these basic needs to any human include sleep, food and reproduction (Davis et al. 2015). The same applies to most women since they tend to comply or at least try to perceive certain ideal situations due to certain advertisements. Certain behaviours are influenced by what the advertisers or the ad are trying to sell or suggest in the images. The problem is made worse by the pictures and wording that tend to discredit the women with relatively large body structures and features with such heading or topics as “Lose Belly Fat!” this was in one of the magazine advertisements from the Women’s Health featuring Jillian Michaels on the cover (BACARDI, 2021). A breakthrough on fitness and weight loss may make women follow this information given in such presentations and magazines and even risk their well-being trying to achieve the best body as described therein. This is because a desirable body is what they want to achieve at the end of the day. When such a message is presented coupled with an image of desirable body image on social platforms, most women feel like they are not part of society unless they have such body image or structure.
Even though they may be prosperous or successful in achieving such body structures, it might be impossible to get the actual results or achievements they had hoped for or that which they had seen in the magazines or the media. Further, Edward Thorndike coined the term operant conditioning, which adopts rewards and punishment to modify behaviours (Alessi and Trollip, 2001). Suppose women can put so much effort and concentration into achieving a certain body structure or image. They will become successful, which also comes with a change in eating habits and a change in thoughts and feelings about one’s body image. These can easily make them reward themselves with a new dress and to feel they have achieved a given body image.
On the other hand, this would be worse if and when the lady or woman has been unable to get or achieve their desired body as it will be a problem because the woman would feel dissatisfied and reduction of love towards self because they have not been able to get the media image of ideal body size and desired image. This can lead to change in behaviour like poor eating habits and seeing less of her true beauty. The woman will not appreciate herself by rewards and goods like in the alternative case where the woman could lose weight. “Anorexia, bulimia and compulsive overeating are not just about the body and weight. Low self-esteem, inability to cope with stress and other related issues lead to such eating disorder” (Bagley, 2009). These are some of the health conditions and illnesses resulting from the pressure one can easily get from media images. This is not a concern for most women because they do not think about it mostly but view the need to have the desired body structure, what they see is the perfect image or body of the presenter or the image in the magazine or mainstream media and would want to immediately or within the most acceptable period to get that body image or structure.
On the other hand, the theory of social comparison is based on the fact that people have the drive to evaluate themselves, their opinions, and their abilities. This is done using other people’s evaluations, comparisons, or assessments to check their levels or state of being. This is as proposed by Leon Festinger in 1954. People would want to understand their place in the world and their role by comparing and contrasting themselves and their features with other people (Festinger, 1954). The establishment of the goals and personal growth is also achieved by comparing oneself with others in identical social spheres or circles. Some of the factors or the areas considered by different individuals when making comparisons and contrasts against themselves and other people include intelligence, wealth, attractiveness, and physical appearances (Solomon, 2016). However, even without any instructions or details for the social comparison, the comparison tendency would invariably manifest itself spontaneously and effortlessly among different individuals and people (Chan and Sengupta, 2013, p.742). According to Festinger (1954), different levels of perspectives are adopted by individuals while comparing each other. An individual may compare themselves with another person either upward or downward. The comparison that involves downward perspective is considered and adopted as a form of self-assessment, which is utilized for defensive inclination. In this case, the wish, desire, or need to be better than or like another individual who is relative of a higher or better position to a given standard makes an individual consider the upwards comparison. An upward self-assessment involves checking a more attractive person or who is good looking than them. Doing so makes them try to achieve the given body image, which is a form of self-achievement. Comparing oneself to an individual who is more attractive by all standards can easily lead to very unhealthy activities against oneself, especially if and when such an individual does not have the means and the ability to comply or become what they have seen in the other individual. This can easily lead to stress, which is another problem that may lead to depression and personal injury due to begrudging oneself (Festinger, 1954; Gibbons, 1986; Tesser, Millar & Moore, 1988).
Nonetheless, to evaluate or assess the self-appearance of themselves, different ladies and women engage in the comparison based on appearance to meet the social standard adopted or set by society. The incidence of social media can also be blamed for the spread and growth of social comparisons, which is now being witnessed across different sections of society. This is because, in the traditional society, the comparisons were between face to face at individual levels. However, nowadays, with the spread of social platforms, individuals have a wide range of images to self-compare with. According to the more recent studies, the social media comparison process has been changed significantly by the different innovations such as the Social Networking Service (SNS) and Internet (Griffin, 2015; Solomon, 2016). According to Solomon (2016), an organization that investigated the treatment of eating disorders established that those using SNS where they share messages and images in the platform about 50% of the participants could not have shared their images before they had significantly enhanced these images by use of other applications, software or tools to make them look much better than their actual or authentic images. Comparing the different images from various social media websites that have been altered or doctored to make them look perfect has kept the current female millennial under constant aesthetic pressure and stress to ensure that they continue reinventing themselves to keep up with the current trends and emerging issues. The continued judgments from society have made worse the issues of comparison and the consideration of a perfect self-image among women in modern society. This means that since the women are now afraid and are under pressure to improve their images due to unrealistic pictures on social media, it forces them to alter their bodies to confirm or satisfy their urge to look like a certain celebrity which is very dangerous. The need or occurrence of a subconscious upwards social comparison and the exposure to such contents can change and enhance or influence the way looks and images change to the perfect image, which has been made possible by “selfies” this has brought with it the questionable standards which are not realistic and can significantly influence the self-esteem of the members of the society especially the women. According to the previous studies which are available in the literature, there is a significant association which exists between body disappointment and the hate for self-image, which essentially can be attributed to the upward social media comparison process (Bessenoff, 2008; Chan & Sengupta 2013; Tiggemann & Slater, 2013).
According to Haferkamp and Kramer (2011), the individuals who took part in the study or who were considered as sample members were found to have been presented as being physically unattractive or attractive online. It was found that when the sample members of the respondents who took part in the study were exposed to more attractive people’s profiles who were of similar sex, it led to a change in mood of the sample members and a decrease in the moods. A different study conducted by various researchers Fardouly, Diedrichs, Vartanian, and Halliwell (2015), explores the issue of comparisons that are appearance-related on Facebook. The different sample members were allowed to choose between browsing magazines featuring models, a control website, or their own Facebook page. The study established that the portion of the sample members who took to browsing their own Facebook pages was more concerned and worried about the images therein and their elements such as the skin tone and physical appearance such as the hair and face as opposed to those individuals who considered websites that had magazines or website that is controlled they appeared to be more relaxed and unbothered (Fardouly et al., 2015).
Consequently, in a presentation by Schilder, “The Image and Appearance of the Human Body,” Schilder (1950) argued that the body image is not just a concept of perception; it is also a reflection of the communication interaction with others viewpoints. Schilder (1950) defined body image as “the picture of our own body which we form in our mind, that is to say, the way in which the body appears to ourselves” the researcher explored the influence of body image on the association with different people, the reasons for the variations in the perceived body size and the heaviness of the heart and lightness of the same.
The primary perceptual definition of the body image by Schilder in the 1950s has been improved more times over the years due to the increase and change in knowledge by different scholars who have contributed to the same since 1950. Another researcher came after investigating the incidence of body image considering different elements and perspectives: appearance satisfaction, weight, body, evaluation, orientation, body schema, and many other more features (Grogan, 2017). The modern concept of “body image” can be defined as the perception and evaluation of self and the general appearances or features, including the beliefs about others, weight, and opinions of his/her body and appearance (Mendelson, Mendelson & White 2001). The current study will take the concept of body image with a different connotation that may have or may not have been used by previous studies to influence social media influence. The current study will consider the body image as the ‘person’s perception, thoughts and the feelings about her physical appearances.’ Some of the elements or the components of the physical self or which influence the same is developed by several factors, which include the cognitive, evaluative and behavioural components (Cash and Pruzinsky, 2002). The individual’s physical attractiveness can be evaluated through a psychological process that includes making critical decisions to social and cultural comparisons. These enable one to self-report their body images (Cash and Pruzinsky, 2002). The objectification theory of Frederickson and Roberts (1997), women will probably be seen as more of sexual and physical objectives, with their social value being surmised by the use of their physical appearances as opposed to the men. To affirm the connection with personal attractiveness the self-worth, most females are more inclined towards the objectification of the self. According to Dittmar (2009), more and more women continue to fall under the predisposition of the different conditions due to the poor feeling of self-perception, including eating disorders, physical issues, and changes in mental experiences. The appearance culture is one of those things which influence the pervasiveness and the salience of the body image concerns among women; this is because the appearance culture is known to raise and reinforce the cultural standards for attractiveness ad beauty (Thompson et al., 1999). The mass media images have been known to depict or display an unrealistic image or appearance of beauty by the use of size and weight that is perfect and ideal, which has in a way become desirable and normative for most women; this has been done by use of mass media images of celebrities and personalities who are supermodels, musicians and movie stars (Grabe, Hyde & Ward, 2008). There are also issues of glamour and beauty displayed in social and mainstream media that have a significant amount of pressure on different women to comply or conform to what the society is going with (Ata, Ludden & Lally, 2007). Grabe et al. (2008) conducted a meta-analytic review comprehensively. They established that the data from both correlational and laboratory studies show the consistent view that the social-cultural view that the negative impact or effect on women body image is created mostly by media and the appearance-related dissatisfaction.
Facebook is one of the social media platforms and cannot be kept from having negative personal or body images among women. This is because of the different perfections of the body, which are put therein by different bloggers, firms, and individuals, which challenge the mind of the individual women against wanting to become like those images. The body image issues can be blamed on Facebook to some extent. The issue of body consciousness among women is mostly brought about by viewing images on Facebook. After checking the status updates for other individuals and women on Facebook, most women start comparing themselves with such images concerning their body structures and appearances; this was established by one of the previous studies, which involved a sample of 600 women. It was also established that slightly above 50% of the women considered from the study as a sample were attracted or wish they could exchange their body image or weight with that they saw on Facebook. It was also established that after comparing their pictures and images with those of their friends, a third of the women were very dissatisfied with their body images. Timeline is one of the most recent or new features introduced on Facebook; it displays an individual’s Facebook that is a new configuration. It was confirmed by the sample members who took part in the study that is 50% confirmed that the new feature on Facebook enabled them to be able to have access to their body size and weight which they had previously much easier. The director of The Centre for Eating Disorders at Sheppard Pratt identified that Facebook makes it easier for people to spend more time and energy criticizing their bodies and wishing to look like someone else. The innovations and improvement in technology and access to the Internet over the past few years have also compounded these problems, which have made it difficult for people to be able to disassociate themselves with the images, pictures and triggers which harm their body images, satisfaction and the decrease in the self-esteem or self-worth and which can significantly affect the eating disorders of the individuals (Walton, 2012). The fashion magazines have previously been blamed for creating a platform or provision for people to compare themselves to a role which has now been played very well by social media with the like of Facebook. One of the main differences is that those who made it to the covers of magazines are models and movie stars that allow people to compare themselves to such figures. On Facebook, people compare themselves to friends and acquaintances. According to Lop (2012), Dina Borzekowski notes that “Social media may have a stronger impact on body images than traditional media”. The majority of the likes, comments and messages are made or sent by friends of the account holder on Facebook. Therefore, those words or comments used therein a most likely to affect the individual’s views of themselves because these comments are made by friends and maybe family members.
Susan Albers, the psychologist at the Cleveland Clinic, stated, “For people who struggle with ups and downs in their weight, seeing posted pictures of themselves can be very difficult”. This is because these individuals are suffering from their weight and haveg some level of strain or difficulty in controlling the same. Therefore, such people should be supported and given a specific level of attention and support (Vartanian, 2012). Donnovan (2011) associated the women who were most prolific sharers of images as those who based their self-worth on the appearances and images on social media platforms and other mainstream media.
Instagram is one of the social media software established as a platform for the socialization of the members of the community and or the society. The most important feature is presenting the images and pictures, which Instagram is known for. The current study will consider Instagram as the point of references for the data collection. The application, which was launched in 2010, was established as a photo-sharing application; the application gathered momentum very fast to hit the highest or become the most popular. This increased to over 700 million active monthly users who published more than 40 billion photos of April 2017. Other features that make Instagram very efficient and friendly for the users includeomments, private messages, tags and l,ikes (Wagner et al., 2016; Champion, 2012). Instagram images are different and can be distinguished from other different images from the Internet. This is because there are super-enhanced by using the graphic filters, which are very powerful in enhancing one appearance before they are published or posted therein (Champion, 2012).
With imagery and the practices or terms of practice, Instagram has distinct features compared to other platforms such as Twitter and Facebook. The users on Facebook can tell a story using the images and the pictures they publish therein about themselves, which enables them to create a portrait about themselves which users will signal identity on the post by use of the links that they get to share. However, on Instagram, the main item of communication on Instagram is images published by the users to display themselves and their body and how they want it to be seen (Lampe, Ellison, & Steinfield 2007; Silfverberg, Liikkanen, & Lampinen 2011). More than 800 million people are active users of Instagram who cannot drop the same use anytime soon. It is estimated that more than 50% of the subscribers on Instagram are composed of the ages 18-29 years old. The popularity of Instagram and the increased social value is one of the observations which enabled the researcher to concentrate on Instagram as a point of reference; Instagram uses images and photograms as a way of communication which is an aesthetic form of presentation, and imagery is key for this application (Deeb-Swihart, Polack, Gilbert, & Essa, 2017). It is also a possibility that the features of Instagram, which includes aesthetic and beauty, are some of the reasons why Instagram is more popular among woman; this has also been shown in the different studies that female internet users are most likely (38% of women vs 26% of men) (Greenwood, Perrin & Duggan, 2016).
The different studies and literature that were reviewed in this study considered images acquired from online platforms with special consideration of the various websites, which include Instagram and selfies, appearance-related social comparison, self-esteem and the body image which is developed or the identity of which is associated or based on the digital context. The current study adopted or considered images from one social media platform that is Instagram. Even though the different studies investigated body image concerning the appearance, the results of these studies were not as direct. The conclusion was scanty, which means that there were no convergent unison findings. This leaves the motivation for the study and the research gap that is considered by the study on the investigation of the association between social media and body image among adult women.
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