HEALTH AND SAFETY
Table of Contents
Recommendation to reduce the spread of infection in a residential care 3
Examples of how healthcare workers can work together to reduce the risk of spreading infection 4
How employers and healthcare workers can work together to reduce the spread of infection 5
Reference List 8
Recommendation to reduce the spread of infection in a residential care
Infections can propagate quickly in conditions in which many people live and eat closely. Prevention of infections and rapid management of outbreaks is important for consistent treatment in care homes. Owing to the vulnerabilities of aged people at home, the transmission of infection inside care homes is especially risky. Care patients of care homes are also vulnerable and may have certain health problems that complicate infection rehabilitation. In order to have a sterile and secure atmosphere, care homes need to uphold strict criteria for infection prevention and management.
According to Lotfinejad et al. (2020), by disturbing them at the cellular stage, the antimicrobial surface prohibits viruses and bacteria from spreading. The antimicrobial ingredient inside the surface is breaking down the contagious cells as germs land on an antimicrobial surface. Moreover, the germs die and cannot replicate. Which offers reliable and passive security in hospitals and nursing homes. When medical clinicians continue to perform their infections mitigation operations, antimicrobial surfaces continue to be used in the background to remove harmful bacteria – 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. No wonder patients are much more prone to survive than are protected from viruses and bacteria. Clinicians can achieve an edge as antimicrobial defence is used to control bacteria in their facilities. Nevertheless, not just patients prosper (Bockmühl et al. 2019).
Musu et al. (2017) commented that patients who do not feel comfortable with HCAI during the hospital need even longer attention – placing more strain on the hospitals that would otherwise have seen more balanced workloads. Infectious diseases are inherently an isolation problem. It is doubtful that you would have only one individual with great discomfort, who will quickly reign over an entire ward once HCAI starts circulating. As beds fill, there is increasing medical anxiety, with a dramatic deterioration in health stopping the discharge of patients promptly. If germs are not killed until they can break down, clinicians will quickly face the unmanageable strain. Where antibiotic surfaces help deter the transmission of harmful bacteria and viruses, increased protection of the patients, including those who work about them, is beneficial to everyone in the hospital.
This game is disastrous for well-being every day. If the risk of contamination is unavoidable, clinicians’ anxieties will rise drastically (Zottele et al. 2017). There is a panacea though – doctors feel considerable more easily when the hospitals are fitted with antimicrobial security. Objects, which medical personnel may regularly deal with such as touchscreen devices may, in addition to several other touchpoints, be armed with an antimicrobial coating to avoid cross-contamination. This provides clinicians with a much better atmosphere, enabling them to do their everyday work with confidence. The rigorous cleaning of the surface is not replaced by antimicrobial defence (Santosaningsih et al.2017). However, it is incredibly useful for the development of a continuously active additional defence sheet. This effective addition to a daily cleaning scheme would decrease the need for long-term “deep cleansing,” since the general incidence of infections is decreased. Outbreaks are often work-intensive, but doctors are well suited to spend resources when they truly want to, by using antifungal coverings to avoid these outbreaks.
Examples of how healthcare workers can work together to reduce the risk of spreading infection
Ahmed et al. (2020) opined that standard procedures are aimed at reducing the likelihood of blood transmission and transmission from known as well as unidentified origins of other pathogens. They are the core levels of infection precautions to be utilized in all patients at the very least. Hand hygiene is one of the most common measures and an essential element of routine precautions against the spread of diseases related to medical treatment. In addition, hand sanitation should be driven by a risk evaluation and expected interaction with blood and body fluids and contaminants with the usage of personal protection equipment. In addition to health workers’ practices in healthcare, every person (including patients and visitors) should follow infection management protocols in the healthcare environment.
To prevent infection, regulation of the dissemination of pathogens from the source is critical. Among the source prevention steps, the basic safeguards are now respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette, which has been established since the epidemic of extreme acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The escalation of routine safeguards worldwide will eliminate needless healthcare risks. Encouraging an institutional environment for protection aims to increase compliance and therefore to lower the danger of prescribed interventions (Alshammari et al. 2018). Adequate personnel and equipment, along with health care professionals’ leadership and knowledge, patients and tourists, are crucial for the improved atmosphere of protection of health care. Few examples are as follows:
• The man should always be cleaned with soap and water if the hands are visibly soiled, or if there is confirmed or serious possible exposure to spores, even if the bathrooms are used. If resources allow, rub hands with an alcohol dependent preparation if other signs are required.
• Ensure the supply of safe running water hand-washing equipment. Make sure hand hygiene items are accessible. Ensure ideally, hand rubber dependent on alcohol should be usable at the point of treatment. Implement a source prevention measure to promote respiratory hygiene and cough etiquette for all individuals with respiratory symptoms (Alshehari et al. 2018).
• Taking waste polluted as clinical waste in compliance with municipal laws, such as blood, bodily fluids, secretions and excretions. Medical waste often has to be handled as human tissues and laboratory waste specifically related to specimen processings. Handle the blood-soiled instruments, bodily oils, secretions and excretions to avoid skin and mucous membrane exposures, infection of clothes and transmission to other patients or the atmosphere. Contaminants must be handled. Reusable equipment is properly cleaned, disinfected and reusable until using by any patient.
The guidelines were created to advise informally and without obligation on the legal provisions of the Food Safety Act 1990 and should be interpreted following the law. The document cannot be regarded as an official declaration or interpretation of the law, because it is the competence of only the courts. There has been every attempt to make sure these Guidance Notes are as useful as practicable. In the end, though, private companies have to maintain consistency with the legislation. Relevant query businesses may want the opinion of their local compliance body, which is normally a local authority’s trade standards/environmental health department. For both customers and food enterprises, food protection is important. Consumers must be confident that what they expect, will not cause damage and are safe from theft is the food they buy and consume. The value of this trust for companies cannot be overlooked.
How employers and healthcare workers can work together to reduce the spread of infection
As mentioned by Blomgren et al. (2021), outbreaks of respiratory diseases, and gastrointestinal infections, are the two prevalent forms of illness in nursing homes. For example, streptococcal pyogenic and multi-drug-resistant species (PMRs) such as Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which is resistant to methicillin, can trigger skin, urinary tract, and bloodstream infections. Although illness outbreaks also happen in homes across the UK, in individual care homes they may be an uncommon occurrence. Care homes can also be the environment for ‘no infection outbreaks,’ where microbes are spread without triggering infection between occupants. If these no-infection outbreaks include MDRs, they have no consequences: if an infection develops subsequently, residents can be treated with little to no appropriate antibiotics (Bouzid et al. 2018). The probability of residents being contagious relies on certain factors; for example, the risk of MRSA infection is increased if the resident has an invasive wound or apparatus in place; and the risk of Clostridium difficile infection is increased if the residents have taken antibiotics in the past eight weeks. The response to outbreaks of infection covers avoidance, preparation, diagnosis and control (PPDM). How effectively a care home works for PPDM, personally and together, decides when people get ill, how many get sick and how sick. Many infections are preventable if routine treatment is handled properly, i.e. if all the workers are accompanied by normal infection precautions (SICPs). SICPs was used in at least eight of the 10 conformity standards of the code of conduct of the Department of Health. Both countries in the UK may not provide a single description of the SICPs but each does have detailed guidelines or textbook. Few examples are as follows:
• Major food protection legislation in the United Kingdom has been changing since 1999. The General Food Law Regulation (Regulation (EC) 178/2002), completely implemented in 2005, has been ratified by the European Union (EU). This Regulation established new food protection, traceability, removal and product recall legislation. Infringement offences were implemented by the General Food Regulations 2004 in Great Britain, which also amended Food Safety Act 1990 (Huttinger et al. 2017).
• The Act itself is not concerned with sanitation through independent laws and is governed by competencies conferred under the Act or by food that is domestically cooked in the house. It covers food cooked at home for children of others and covers events such as food storage in canteens, clubs, colleges, clinics, organizations and public and local councils. Preparation for them is important not just for avoiding outbreaks by the use of steps. Autumn is the right season since it happens more often in the winter.
• The Green book advises that vaccines can be given to everyone with health and social care directly in touch with residents, to defend themselves and minimize risks of transmission at social services facilities. Influenza vaccine is available to those aged 65 and over in the fall. It may be a challenge for administrators but for tenants to encourage them to be vaccinated. It is critical to schedule an immunization campaign early and to search online for new ways of promoting influenza jab among care staff.
Ahmed, J., Malik, F., Memon, Z.A., Arif, T.B., Ali, A., Nasim, S., Ahmad, J. and Khan, M.A., 2020. Compliance and knowledge of healthcare workers regarding hand hygiene and use of disinfectants: a study based in Karachi. Cureus, 12(2).
Alshammari, M., Reynolds, K.A., Verhougstraete, M. and O’Rourke, M.K., 2018, December. Comparison of perceived and observed hand hygiene compliance in healthcare workers in MERS-CoV endemic regions. In Healthcare (Vol. 6, No. 4, p. 122). Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute.
Alshehari, A.A., Park, S. and Rashid, H., 2018. Strategies to improve hand hygiene compliance among healthcare workers in adult intensive care units: a mini systematic review. Journal of Hospital Infection, 100(2), pp.152-158.
Blomgren, P.O., Lytsy, B., Hjelm, K. and Swenne, C.L., 2021. Healthcare workers’ perceptions and acceptance of an electronic reminder system for hand hygiene. Journal of Hospital Infection, 108, pp.197-204.
Bockmühl, D.P., Schages, J. and Rehberg, L., 2019. Laundry and textile hygiene in healthcare and beyond. Microbial Cell, 6(7), p.299.
Bouzid, M., Cumming, O. and Hunter, P.R., 2018. What is the impact of water sanitation and hygiene in healthcare facilities on care-seeking behaviour and patient satisfaction? A systematic review of the evidence from low-income and middle-income countries. BMJ global health, 3(3).
Huttinger, A., Dreibelbis, R., Kayigamba, F., Ngabo, F., Mfura, L., Merryweather, B., Cardon, A. and Moe, C., 2017. Water, sanitation and hygiene infrastructure and quality in rural healthcare facilities in Rwanda. BMC health services research, 17(1), pp.1-11.
Lotfinejad, N., Peters, A. and Pittet, D., 2020. Hand hygiene and the novel coronavirus pandemic: the role of healthcare workers. The Journal of hospital infection.
Musu, M., Lai, A., Mereu, N.M., Galletta, M., Campagna, M., Tidore, M., Piazza, M.F., Spada, L., Massidda, M.V., Colombo, S. and Mura, P., 2017. Assessing hand hygiene compliance among healthcare workers in six Intensive Care Units. Journal of preventive medicine and hygiene, 58(3), p.E231.
Santosaningsih, D., Erikawati, D., Santoso, S., Noorhamdani, N., Ratridewi, I., Candradikusuma, D., Chozin, I.N., Huwae, T.E., van der Donk, G., van Boven, E. and Voor, A.F., 2017. Intervening with healthcare workers’ hand hygiene compliance, knowledge, and perception in a limited-resource hospital in Indonesia: a randomized controlled trial study. Antimicrobial Resistance & Infection Control, 6(1), pp.1-10.
Zottele, C., Magnago, T.S.B.D.S., Dullius, A.I.D.S., Kolankiewicz, A.C.B. and Ongaro, J.D., 2017. Hand hygiene compliance of healthcare professionals in an emergency department. Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP, 51.
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