The results indicate that the heat transfer occurs more on the boundary layer than on the central region of the fluid. This works because of natural convection determined by the direction of the convection flux; the hydrodynamic layer replaces the heat lost due to the reverse flux direction. In contrast, in the central region, where the change was ascending slowly, the heat loss was minimal. Furthermore, heat flowed from the water at a higher temperature to the air at a slightly lower temperature through convection. Also, the results indicated that the scaling process provided scaling constants that directly affected the total vertical velocity at the boundary layer, thus possessing comparable scaling to that of the boundary layer. However, the scaling experienced poor performance near the wall and at the lower parts of the container. (Wen, X., Wang, et al. (2021), Has investigated the flow behavior of fluid and the boundary layers to establish the unsteady natural convection heat flow using heat conditions defined by time. Coefficient such as the non-dimensional and the global thermal model provides a clear clue on how to understand the flow of heat in any fluid. (Sivák, P., Tauš, P. et al. (2020) has provided key components and coefficient that can be used to analyze heat flow behavior in stubby thermal holders. They also show that adding thermal insulation improves thermal performance by a great percentage. The material which has a lower heat loss coefficient is a good thermal insulator in various sections of a stratified bottle or can. This analysis supports the theory of conjugate convective heat model transfer to understand the empirical relation of heat flux to temperature difference in heat transfer coefficient, which is a good component in analyzing theoretical heat convection. The study shows a correlation between various sections of the bottle in relation to heat change due to thermal stratification in the upper and lower parts of the fluid, thus separating the liquid in two parts with the boundary interface advancing towards the upper region.
In line with the hypothesis, it was noted that time played a key role in the temperature loss by heat gain or heat loss in fluids. The results were also conducted through experimental methods graphs to determine the heat loss in a stratified vertical container and the newton’s theoretical law, which talks about cooling processes in a fluid. This experimental technique measures heat loss and temperature changes in various sections of the stratified bottle. It was noted that heat loss in containers without a stubby holder is higher and estimated to be 3.6 times more than the stratified bottle with insulation.
The mean temperature for an eleven hours cool-down test period with a stratified bottle insulated with a stubby holder was carried out and another one without a stubby holder. However, the insulation properties of the insulating material were not provided. This period was chosen for comparison purposes, and the temperatures in different sections of the container varied, and the room temperature was recorded at zero degrees, as illustrated in Figures 2 and 4 using a highly stratified bottle at the beginning of the cool-down process. Due to thermal insulation, the bottle is still thermally stratified after eleven hours, with e10 recording a temperature of nineteen degrees Celsius and e13 recording a temperature of 21 degrees Celsius. This data from the analysis shows that thermal insulation results in a reduced heat loss; thus, the thermal stratification of the fluid is maintained for a longer period of time.
Finding and comparing the heat loss coefficient of each section generally provides an efficient insight into the general heat loss in a stratified storage bottle. The heat coefficient data obtained from this hypothesis for both an insulated and un-insulated storage bottle are similar to those reported by (Beik, A. J. G., Assari, M. R., & Tabrizi, H. B. (2020). The experiment agrees with the research because it argues that the material with a lower heat loss coefficient attained from the cool down experiments thus can be used as an efficient thermal insulator by taking the temperature readings in the sections of a stratified bottle. The test heat loss coefficient can be used in various models that help to predict the temperature changes in a small stratified thermal energy storage material.
This method can be useful in designing small vertical storage without knowing the U values of insulating material. Moreover, the test setup can be used as a critical teaching tool through the practical application of the cooling law stated by Newton.
Various authors have recognized their own experience with heat radiation. Though, () has argued that the effect of heat radiation can be ignored because of the slight temperature difference between insulated and non-insulated. This hypothesis has studied the key details to check the incorrectness of heat transfer features in non-insulated and insulated stratified containers, which has been shown in the results through considering and neglecting the effect of heat radiation. It has been noted that ignoring the heat radiation effect is more likely to result in large errors of non-insulated containers, in situations of air with low outer convection heat coefficients and larger surrounding emissivity, mainly while the air temperature is diverse from that of surroundings and when there is a larger inner fluid convection coefficiency.
Through insulating the air cavity, a stubby holder can be utilized to reduce heat losses in a storage unit. (Narula, K., De Oliveira Filho, et al. (2020). Undertook a relative performance investigation by assessing strategies concerning heat loss reduction. Thermal stratification within a storage unit is a key component contributing to the overall efficiency of heat maintenance. The level of a stratification storage unit depends on charging circles. It also puts into consideration the flow rates, water velocities, and the shape and size of the storage unit. (Yang, Y., Dec, J., Dronniou, N., Sjöberg, M., et al. (2011), Has mentioned in research that the design of the container plays a key role on the impacts of thermal stratification as it is used to regulate the flow of velocities thus reduce mixing.
Numerical investigation of 3D temperature and fluid flow fields in the unit at charging and discharging properties has been carried out to investigate the variation in temperatures of the outflows in different sections of the unit. The transfer of fluid in the fluid domain to the environment is displayed as a convention with the transfer of heat in U coefficient, thus reflecting thermal transmission at the three layers of the wall. The opening of the container is considered as a boundary to model and maintain the atmospheric pressure in the air space. Mass flows are normal to the boundary and are applied on all the inlets and outlets in the outer container of the storage unit.
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