Questions on  Journal of Social Work

Question 1

Mother Halima books an appointment with the social worker and begins to talk about the son Tareq.  Tareq’s teacher is concerned with him because he consumes drugs.  Tareq’s father seemed calm while talking to the teacher, and in a sense, he is highly tempered.  He shouts to  Tareq when he comes from a school without telling him why he should not engage in drugs.  Tareq experienced other school problems, including bullying because of his ethnic origin and his family, and he had just come from the village to the city.  Tareq is also very lonely, and he does not express his feelings or communicates with any of the family members.   He shows symptoms of depression, according to the social worker at his school, because he does not participate in school activities.

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Further, Hamad, the father of the family, is a very workaholic.  He works very hard to maintain the standards in his neighborhood, and he does not spend time with his father. Hamad is diagnosed with liver cancer, and he is undergoing chemotherapy.

Question 2

The psychological perspective that can be used to describe Tareq’s drug addiction problem is the sociological explanation.  According to Peele (2019), sociological explanation tells about the importance of certain social environment aspects, social bond,  social structure, school, and family,  depending on the type of abuse.

The social bond at school s and in the families make a difference for Tareq’s. This is because adolescents with a weak bond at their schools are measured with such factors as closeness they feel with their teachers and peers, and they are likely to use drugs. For instance, Tareq shows various symptoms of sociological explanation because he is bullied at school because of his ethnic origin. He and his family come from the village to the city for a better-paying job.  He experiences difficulties in making friends and shows withdrawal symptoms. The social worker at school complains to his mother because he does not participate in the school activities, and he goes into depression.

The problems at home can also trigger Tareq’s drug addiction problem. His father got diagnosed with liver cancer, and they no longer bond with one another at home as a family.  His mother complains because he does not express his feelings or communicates with the family. He prefers hanging with his few friends that he made at the mall.

Question 3

The psychological perspective that can be used to understand the problem that is experienced with Hammond’s family is cognitive development by  Piaget’s theory.  According to Piaget, theory identifies the social, emotional, and physical development between the same family members.  Piaget identifies that the change in behaviors among adolescent individuals can be caused by the transformation in the state (Bavojdan et al., 2018).  Piaget defines transformation as all change manners undergone by an individual.

Further, Jean Piaget identifies the effects of workaholic parenting. According to Piaget’s, when a  child does not experience the presence of their parents more, they are likely to internalize low self-esteem,  where they do not feel smart enough, confident and arrogant a situation that leads to drug addiction.  This is true in Hammond’s family case.  The family experiences absence of their father, who is a workaholic.  The father of the family, Hamad, is always absent, and the family does not engage in any activity together.  The father’s interest is to compete with the social standards in the neighborhood, and when he is back home, he goes to bed.  When Hamad is called by Tareq’s teacher about his son’s drug addiction, he seems very calm and does not inquire about such information. He shouts to his son without looking for the source of his son’s addiction or tries to determine the problem and how to solve it.

Further, Hammond’s family is dealing with change and transformation that occurs when they come from the village to the city. Tareq seems to be the most affected in the family because his peers bully him in the schools due to his ethnic origin, and he shows depression symptoms at school.

Question 4

Drug addition among high school students can be a result of psychological, biological, and environmental factors. Also, drug addiction among teenagers can be influenced by depression. This is because problems related to mental health lead to self-medication, where a  person turns to self-medication where the alcohols or the drugs alleviate symptoms like sadness. The years of teenagers are stressful,  uncomfortable, and awkward because the brain’s logical reasoning continues to develop to the late 20s. For teens dealing with mental problems, the risks of teenagers’ substance abuse are high.

This is true in Hammond’s family units. Their oldest son Tareq struggles with identity and self-esteem. He is bullied in school, and he does not express his feelings at home. He shows symptoms of depression, according to the social worker at his school, because he does not participate in school activities. According to (  ), depression among teenagers is associated because it increases the chances of using drugs. Other factors that can drive a  teenager to drugs and substance abuse include peer pressure and desire for enjoyment.

Question 5

Tareq is experiencing an antisocial personality disorder.  According to(Bavojdan et al. 2018), the human personality is a  collection of thoughts,  behaviors, and feelings that make people different.  People do not feel and behave similarly because it depends on the situation that they are in, the individuals around us, and other factors that interconnect.  Also,  (Bavojdan et al. 2018) assert that antisocial personality disorder is a form of a psychological problem related to putting off our pleasure and personal gain before those around us.   When an individual is diagnosed with an antisocial disorder, they are likely to engage in dangerous situations such as drug abuse among teenagers, feel bored easily,  and have a  problem with empathy.

For instance, Tareq shows withdrawal symptoms because he very lonely, and he does not express his feelings or communicates with any of the family members.   He shows symptoms of depression, according to the social worker at his school, because he does not participate in school activities. Also, Tareq is reported by his teacher to his father of drug abuse in the school compound. When he finds few friends at his new school, he spends time shopping and ignoring his entire family.

Question 6

Supportive parental guide and monitoring of behavior are factors that reduce the level of drug use among the youth. According to (  ), the parents are expected to limit their teenagers’ time to spend time with their friends while partying and hanging out at night.  Parenthood involvement in a child’s life can help the parent identify whether their child is involved with drug use.  This includes determining common symptoms, including losing interest in co-curricular activities at school, less open in their feeling, and more selective.

This can be applied in Tareq’s situation to help with his drug addiction problem. Halima his mother should engage him in house activities such as washing the utensils, cleaning the house, and going for grocery shopping to help him stay engaged and busy through the days.  Also, the mother should consult good psychology and take him to help with his drug problems.

Further, Hamad, the father toy Tareq, should be shown interest in his son’s life. These include helping with his son’s homework and being engaged with his school work.  According to research done by (  )  when a parent helps their children with homework, they feel more loved, and a strong connection can be established. This helps break the conversation barrier between the child and the parent.

Question 7                                                                                                               

The addiction invokes a motivation mechanism to explain an addiction behavior among the youth. According to (   ), drug addiction among the youth can be addressed through having a motivation factor.

The first motivation factor to address Tareq’s drug abuse problem is finding support for his addiction recovery.  The drug addiction problem can be solved through confiding with one another in the family. Tareq should  find support  from  his parents and  other  close  friends  that should  act as a motivation factor to  deal with  his addiction,

Secondly, Tareq should learn healthy techniques to cope with his stress.  After addressing his immediate addition problem and seeking treatment with the doctors, he can still find problems that lead to his drug addiction.   Once Tareq is sober, the negative feelings that he had resurfaced. For the treatment to be successful, Tareq would need to resolve his underlying issues.

Also, Tareq can adopt a quick stress-relieving mechanism that does not include the use of drugs.  This includes movement, and walk briskly around the block can be used to relieve stress. Meditation and Yoga also come in handy when relieving stress.  Other stress-relieving mechanisms include experimenting with his sense of taste,  closing of eyes to picture a  peaceful place, and engaging himself in curriculum activities.

Question 8


The psychologist that will be required to work with Tareq is a clinical psychologist.  According to DiClemente, (2018), clinical psychologists diagnose and treat individuals experiencing mental illness, addiction, and psychological distress. The clinical psychologists work with private practices and mental health clinics. They are trained in different techniques, but they are prepared to specialize in a particular disorder to work with a specific population. Such areas include abuse treatment, mental health among the youths, substance abuse among teenagers, and senior health. Tareq shows all the symptoms that clinical psychologists specialize in, and this might help them.  Such symptoms include loneliness, and he does not express his feelings or communicates with any of the family members.   He shows signs of depression, according to the social worker at his school, because he does not participate in school activities.


The psychologist that will be required to work with Halima is a cognitive psychologist.  According to DiClemente, (2018), a cognitive psychologist investigates how individuals think. The topics that cognitive psychologists address include problem-solving techniques and decision-making. This type of psychologist identifies how the brain stores, learn, recognizes, and utilizes information.  Halima will need this type of psychologist to help her cope with her household problems and make informative decisions that will help both her husband and her son overcome their different problems.

Question 9

Substance abuse and mental health are directly connected to the other with adverse effects. According to DiClemente, (2018), when an individual has both drug abuse problems and mental health problems such as depression, anxiety, bipolar it is called dual diagnosis. Dealing with drug abuse addiction is not easy. Tareq is dealing with co-occurring drug abuse, an addiction problem, and mental illness issues.  This is because he shows such symptoms as loneliness, and he does not express his feelings or communicates with any of the family members.   He shows signs of depression, according to the social worker at his school, because he does not participate in school activities. Also, Tareq has a drug addiction problem, and he prefers hanging at the mall with his friends rather than his family members.

The mental illness issue and drug addiction problems are hazardous when they are ignored.  Mental health illness, depression, and drug addiction are closely interlinked. This is because this problem can cause prolonged psychological reactions, and the condition of depression and anxiety is worsened.

Question 10

Tareq’s mother, Halima, complains about his son’s problem with drug addiction.  Halima talks about the call her husband receives from the school, where a  teacher complains about Tereq’s behavior.  According to Halima, Tereq shows various withdrawal symptoms where he is very lonely, and he does not express his feelings or communicates with any of the family members.   He shows signs of depression, according to the social worker at his school, because he does not participate in school activities. Also, Halima talks of other problems experienced by Tareq in school, including bullying because of his ethnic origin and his family. He had just come from the village to the city. Other disorders showed by Tereq include he does not take part in school activities, and he goes into depression.

Tareq can be experiencing a mental disorder known as a substance-induced disorder. This disorder occurs due to change in the environment (Corrigan et al., 2019). This is true in Tereq’s condition because his family moved from the village to the city for a better-paying job.  Some of the symptoms of the substance-induced disorder include withdrawal symptoms,  depression, and drug addiction.  Some individuals experience mood change, hostility, fatigue, hallucinations, and seizure. following the withdrawal symptoms


Peele, S. (2019). Reductionism in the psychology of the eighties: Can biochemistry eliminate addiction, mental illness, and pain?. American Psychologist36(8), 807.

Bavojdan, M. R., Towhidi, A., & Rahmati, A. (2018). The relationship between mental health and general self-efficacy beliefs, coping strategies, and locus of control in male drug abusers. Addiction & Health3(3-4), 111.

DiClemente, C. C., Nidecker, M., & Bellack, A. S. (2018). Motivation and the stages of change among individuals with severe mental illness and substance abuse disorders. Journal of substance abuse treatment34(1), 25-35.

Corrigan, P. W., Kuwabara, S. A., & O’Shaughnessy, J. (2019). The public stigma of mental illness and drug addiction: Findings from a stratified random sample. Journal of Social Work9(2), 139-147.




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