Questions on  Information Systems Frontiers



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The Hackers





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The Hackers

Previously, the risk created by computer hackers and criminals was relatively small since most people lacked an adequate approach to modern information technologies to be influenced in any considerable manner by computer crime. Notably, hacking describes an act of recognizing a particular network or computer system weaknesses to develop security and obtain access to personal or business data. For instance, utilizing a security or password cracking algorithm to get computer system access is a form of hacking commonly practiced globally. However, most people do not understand what hacking entails. They view the activity as being illegal that is intended to steal information or money from systems. Even though it is correct that some hackers utilize the skill for illegal actions, this is not what hacking entails. Criminal hackers that exist are a small minority, thus hacking entails utilizing the available technology in an illogical manner to resolve problems that regular techniques cannot.

Types of Hackers

‘Black Hat’ Hackers

Apparently, Black Hat is a global type of hacking that has been difficult to stop. According to Votipka et al (2015), these are offenders who interrupt computer systems and networks with wicked intentions. Moreover, these people may introduce malware into the hacked systems that damage records, grasp computers’ storage, or steals network passwords, and other security information. As hacking is the main intelligence gathering implement for most governments, it is still usual that Black Hats work alone or with particular logical crime organizations to make quick and easy money. Therefore, most Black Hat hackers started as script kiddies who utilized purchased hacker equipment to manipulate security lapses.

‘White Hat’ Hackers

Evidently, White Hat hackers utilize their powers and skills for the good, unlike Black Hat hackers. As Dupont et al state, they can sometimes be contracted by organizations or companies as security experts that attempt to discover security errors through hacking. Furthermore, White Hats have the authorization to employ the objectives and concede them within the recommended system of engagement. Regularly, White Hackers are referred to as ethical hackers. They focus on ethical hacking instruments, techniques, and skills to protect the company’s information systems.

‘Grey Hat’ Hackers

Grey hats use the same skills and techniques to exploit computer systems and networks the same way black hats do, but without malicious intentions, revealing all loopholes and susceptibility to law enforcement organizations. Similarly, Specter (2015) opines that they would exploit the systems without the owner’s consent, and if any issues are found, they will disclose to the owner, occasionally demanding some pay to fix the issue. However, if the owner does not take action regarding the issue, then the hacker would post the found issue online for the globe to see. Therefore, this kind of hacker tries to get some findings for them that would benefit society.

Characteristics of Hackers

Among the major characteristics of workers is that, firstly, they are frequently curious. Zhang et al (2015) affirm that they usually question everything, thus their curiosity makes them more efficient and professional. Moreover, they investigate current issues and find new solutions. Secondly, hackers are usually passionate about their computers (Zhang, 2015). Hacking is not simple since hacking a system or network takes a couple of hours, making the hackers get hooked and passionate about their computers. The third feature is that most of the hackers are well organized. According to Votipka et al (2015), it is a hassle arranging documents, data, and big files on computers; hence hackers need to be organized so that they can locate relevant files easily.


Criminal hackers that exist are a small minority, thus hacking entails utilizing the available technology in an illogical manner to resolve problems that regular techniques cannot. There are different types of hackers, which include ‘Black Hat’ hackers, ‘White Hat’ hackers, and ‘Grey Hat’ hackers. As discussed above, most hackers are curious, well organized, and are passionate about their computers.
















Dupont, B., Côté, A. M., Savine, C., & Décary-Hétu, D. (2016). The ecology of trust among hackers. Global Crime17(2), 129-151. 

Specter, M. (2015). The gene hackers. The New Yorker16. 

Votipka, D., Stevens, R., Redmiles, E., Hu, J., & Mazurek, M. (2018, May). Hackers vs. testers: A comparison of software vulnerability discovery processes. In 2018 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP) (pp. 374-391). IEEE. 

Zhang, X., Tsang, A., Yue, W. T., & Chau, M. (2015). The classification of hackers by knowledge exchange behaviors. Information Systems Frontiers17(6), 1239-1251. 

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