Questions on Ecosystem Core



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Water Pollution

Emissions are the introduction of hazardous chemicals into the atmosphere. (Sun et al.), and the toxic materials are generally referred to as contaminants. Pollutants affect the air, water, and soil. Examples of contaminants include volcanic ash, non-decomposable trash, and factory runoff, among others. Pollution can also take the form of noise, heat, or light (Schwarzenbach et al.). As per the World Health Organization, pollution kills nearly 4.5 million people per year, primarily due to air pollution (Hadei, Mostafa, et al.). The following paper will focus on water pollution as a type of pollution. The report will comprehensively discuss water pollution, the causes, the effects of water pollution, and the viable solutions to combat corruption.

Water Pollution

Water is described as a fluid made up of hydrogen and oxygen components (Symes, Mark & Leroy). Water is a tasteless and odourless liquid at room temperature, according to scientists. Water exists in three states: gaseous, liquid, and solid (Nwosu). Both plants and animals need water to survive. Other uses of water include cooking, washing, and recreational activities. To be safe to drink, water must be free of bacteria and contaminants. Potable water is water that is safe to drink. Disease-causing germs and chemicals can cause disease Water can be obtained from various sources, including lakes and rivers, streams, rock catchment areas, rock holes, excavated dams, rainwater reservoirs, bores and wells, and a variety of other sources.

According to (Dalby), water quality problems are a big concern for humanity in the twenty-first century.  Chemical pollution is emphasized, particularly inorganic and organic micropollutants such as toxic metals and metalloids and a wide range of synthetic organic chemicals. Some aspects of waterborne diseases are also addressed, and the urgent need for better sanitation in developing countries. For more than five decades, persistent organic contaminants have affected water supplies worldwide (Alharbi et al.).

When harmful substances such as chemicals and microorganisms contaminate water in a stream, river, lake, ocean, or other water body, it is called water contamination. Water contamination degrades the quality of water, making it harmful to both the atmosphere and humans. Because of its capacity to regenerate and cleanse itself by segmentation, water is a unique material. When toxic chemicals are abundant in the water, the normal process of washing becomes difficult. Water is more susceptible to contaminants than other liquids due to its tendency to dissolve more chemicals quickly. Water contamination occurs when chemical contaminants from fields, cities, and factories dissolve and combine with water. Pollution is described as something added to water that is greater than the capacity of the water to break it down.  Water pollution can be classified into two types: target sources and non-point sources. Factory waste, septic systems, and garbage from treatment centres are just a few examples of easy-to-identify point sources. Non-point sources of water pollution include sediments, fertilizers, chemicals, animal waste, and landfills, among others.

There are various forms of water contamination. Surface water pollution refers to water bodies above ground and is one of the forms of water pollution. The process of surface water contamination can happen naturally, by mistake, or on purpose. Surface water can be contaminated by improper waste separation. Oxygen depletion pollution occurs when animals living in the water bodies die and produce harmful toxins making the water dangerous. Microbiological contamination arises naturally due to microorganisms in the water, resulting in diseases like cholera and bilharzia. Groundwater pollution occurs when fertilizers and pesticides used on crops permeate the ground and pollute the water supply. Agriculture is regarded as the primary source of water pollution (Rickson). Chemical pollution, in which chemicals infiltrate water and pollute the air, is the definitive source of water pollution.

Effects of Water Pollution on Human Health

Contaminated water can host bacteria that are harmful to human health. Environmental toxins such as pesticides, fertilizers, and heavy metals can cause severe health issues if ingested. Human health can be harmed by drinking, bathing in, or washing in dirty water. Developing nations face the challenge of providing clean water and sanitation (Adams, Boateng & Amoyaw). Infectious diseases caused by water and parasites account for the majority of infant mortality worldwide. Consuming synthetic toxins found in water raises the risk of cancer, reproductive abnormalities, altered brain function, immune and endocrine organs damage, as well as coronary and renal issues. Depending on the environment and type of chemical, various chemicals have different effects on the human body. Swimming in polluted water can lead to skin irritation, herpes, and respiratory problems, among other things. Inflammatory repression, liver dysfunction, and significant pathogen are all caused by toxins found in industrial waste. Human health is harmed indirectly due to water pollution that destroys marine birds, fish, and other sea animals that provide food for humans. Wild weather, such as torrential rain and flooding, increases the risk of contracting waterborne diseases transmitted from person to person.

Effects of Water Pollution on the Eco System

An ecosystem refers to the relationship between the living and nonliving things in a given environment (Wang & Zhai). The interaction between different components of the ecosystem allows the ecosystem to be stable. Human beings rely on the ecosystem to live. There are various ecosystems, including forest, freshwater, marine, desert, grassland, woodland, and tundra ecosystems.

Surplus contamination in a water supply will harm the plants and animals that live, reducing the amount of oxygen available in the water. Different contaminants have different effects on the ecosystem. Low levels of pollution can be beneficial, but high levels may harm the system’s ecology. Biological pollutants can spread disease and damage the environment by contaminating the water. Water shortage is a growing climate and human-related issue that drives and interacts with other freshwater ecosystem stimuli, including chemical pollution (Arenas et al.).

Effluents from municipal wastewater treatment plants are complex mixtures of chemicals that can disrupt ecosystem processes. Most of these contaminants (hazardous pollutants) trigger metabolic processes at all concentrations, whereas others incentivize it in small quantities and force it just above maximum, resulting in subsidized responses. As a result, effluents’ ultimate effects are primarily determined by their composition and the dilution potential of receiving water bodies.

Effects of Water Pollution on the Food Chain

A food chain is a network of food-dependent on one another (Soon, Chandia & Mac). Food is cultivated, produced, and ultimately consumed in the food chain. The food chain is a series of food-related operations. The food chain starts with primary producers, from which food is derived, and ends with decomposer species. Food chains depict the flow of energy in an ecosystem. When one individual eats another, most of the energy is wasted, and only a tiny portion of it is transferred to the user. The feeding orders are needed to keep the ecosystem in a delicate balance. Any link in the food chain contributes to population control. Any disruption to any aspect of the environment affects the whole.

The marine ecosystem’s fauna and flora are made up of a diverse mix of various communities (Pita et al.). Because of human activities, the aquatic food chain is weak and vulnerable to contaminants, particularly chemicals and metals. Contaminants may be consumed from edible or non-dietary sources (Ismail Amir et al.). It becomes harmful to life in water bodies when the concentration of vital metals rises above average. When you move up the food chain, the consequences of water contamination become more pronounced. Several factors determine the impact of pollutants on the food chain. Contaminants present in freshwater bodies are eaten by aquatic life, including fish. After that, the fish is fished and eaten by humans. The fish eat tiny organisms that are the pollutant’s carriers. Foods cultivated in water-logged environments, such as rice, are also high in arsenic contaminants. The rice could wreak havoc on the circulatory system, increasing the risk of cancer. An abundance of nutrients in a water body reduces the availability of oxygen, resulting in the death of aquatic organisms.

Solution to Water Pollution

Water pollution must be reduced to keep the environment healthy. Water pollution can be addressed in a variety of ways. Treatment of wastewater is one process. The most efficient way to reduce water contamination is to ensure that any water is treated before reintroduced into waterways (McEachran et al.). Treatment of wastewater is successful because it can remove almost all contaminants from the water. The wastewater is subjected to a series of chemical, physical, and biological processes to reduce the water toxicity level. To ensure that pollutants are adequately separated from the water, various treatment sensors are used. pH and conductivity sensors are examples of water treatment sensors. Another approach to water contamination is floodwater management. As flowing water flows through the streets, it sucks up toxic contaminants and deposits them in rivers and lakes. Stormwater may be handled by capturing it, filtering it, and storing it for later usage. Stormwater management decreases the number of contaminants that enter the ocean or lake.

Septic tank adaptation is a solution to water contamination. Septic tanks isolate solids from fluids in sewage water. The solids in septic tanks are degraded by biological processes, while the liquids flow out into a land drainage system. Septic tanks reduce water emissions by efficiently removing pollution already present in the water (Withers et al.). Once it rains, fertilizers and pesticides wash away with the rain, introducing infectious agents into the water supply. Chemicals would not be washed away when it rains if green cultivation is used, such as planting trees and other friendly plants near water sources. Pesticides containing toxic chemicals should also be used sparingly by farmers.

Paste waste prevention and control is another solution to water contamination. Plastics come in a variety of shapes and sizes, including plastic paper and bottles. Humans use plastic in a variety of ways in their daily lives. Plastics are often washed into water bodies, degrading the water’s consistency. People should stop using plastics wherever possible to help reduce the amount of plastic waste in the world. If plastic items must be used, it is critical to recycle them rather than discarding them in the atmosphere. Instead of using plastic, other choices should be considered.

Proper disposal of hazardous chemicals Solvents, pesticides, and cleaners can never be washed or drained down the toilet. Many chemicals found in the home can be recycled. Drop-in centres can also be used to manage chemicals in the house. It’s essential to purchase goods that don’t contain harmful chemicals that last a long time. Different industries are going green and producing non-toxic hygiene and pesticide chemicals over time. Purchasing such items reduces water pollution.

People should refrain from using toilets as trash cans. It is essential to prevent flushing household products such as dust cloths and wrappers into the toilet. Toilet paper is made in such a way that it can quickly dissolve in water. Some waste materials can be difficult to degrade in the presence of water, resulting in contamination. Routine car maintenance prevents oil and other harmful fluids from leaking into bodies of water or the water supply near people.

Everyone in the city has a role to play in preventing water pollution. As a result, people must remain alert and report any cases of water contamination. Unreported illegal waste disposal and other forms of water contamination are ordinary. Illegal waste dumps are often left unattended. Such individuals should be identified, and action is taken against them to prevent water contamination. Sustaining efforts to clean up water sources, such as planting trees or cleaning up rivers or lakes, will go a long way toward addressing water pollution. Other water contamination control strategies include consuming organic food made with fewer chemical additives, conserving water, eliminating littering in all forms, minimizing the use of detergents and bleaches, and not discarding medication, among many others.


Water is an integral part of both living and non-living things in the environment. Different things use water for other purposes. Water also serves as a habitat for several organisms. Water pollution is the process where toxic substances are introduced into the water and affect the water quality. Different factors cause pollution, and the effect of the pollution depends on the organism and the extent of the water pollution. Water pollution affects the health of human beings, the ecosystem, and the food chain. Different solutions to deal with water pollution are available, including proper disposal of waste, flooding water management, septic tanks, and planting more trees and plants around water bodies. Water pollution is a result of human activities. Prevention of water pollution will also require the input and participation of human beings.









Work Cited

Adams, Ellis Adjei, Godfred O. Boateng, and Jonathan A. Amoyaw. “Socioeconomic and           demographic predictors of potable water and sanitation access in Ghana.” Social                                      Indicators Research 126.2 (2016): 673-687.

Alharbi, Omar ML, Rafat A. Khattab, and Imran Ali. “Health and environmental effects of          persistent organic pollutants.” Journal of Molecular Liquids 263 (2018): 442-453.

Arenas-Sánchez, Alba, Andreu Rico, and Marco Vighi. “Effects of water scarcity and chemical                pollution in aquatic ecosystems: State of the art.” Science of the Total Environment 572                               (2016): 390-403.

Soon, Jan Mei, Mahmood Chandia, and Joe Mac Regenstein. “Halal integrity in the food supply   chain.” British Food Journal (2017).

Hadei, Mostafa, et al. “Estimation of mortality and hospital admissions attributed to criteria air     pollutants in Tehran metropolis, Iran (2013-2016).” Aerosol and air quality research                                            17.10 (2017): 2474-2481.

Ismail, Amir, et al. “Heavy metals in vegetables and respective soils irrigated by the canal,             municipal waste, and tube well waters.” Food Additives & Contaminants: Part B 7.3                                                (2014): 213-219.

McEachran, Andrew D., et al. “Comparison of emerging contaminants in receiving waters             downstream of a conventional wastewater treatment plant and a forest-water reuse                system.” Environmental Science and Pollution Research 25.13 (2018): 12451-12463.

Nwosu, Ejikeme P. “Gason: A new state of water.” Am. J. Sci. Technol 1 (2014): 55-59.

Pita, Lucia, et al. “The sponge holobiont in a changing ocean: from microbes to ecosystems.”         Microbiome 6.1 (2018): 1-18.

Rickson, R. J. “Can control of soil erosion mitigate water pollution by sediments?.” Science of the Total Environment 468 (2014): 1187-1197.

Schwarzenbach, René P., et al. “Global water pollution and human health.” Annual review of environment and resources 35 (2010): 109-136.

Sun, Tian Yin, et al. “Comprehensive probabilistic modelling of environmental emissions of          engineered nanomaterials.” Environmental pollution 185 (2014): 69-76.

Symes, Mark D., and Leroy Cronin. “Decoupling hydrogen and oxygen evolution during              electrolytic water splitting using an electron-coupled-proton buffer.” Nature Chemistry                                  5.5 (2013): 403.

Wang, Kun, and Xiajie Zhai. “The creation of “Ecosystem Core” hypothesis to explain      ecosystem evolution.” BMC Ecology 19.1 (2019): 1-9.

Withers, Paul JA, et al. “Do septic tank systems pose a hidden threat to water quality?.” Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 12.2 (2014): 123-130.

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