Research Pro Forma Assignment
Each researcher has his/her reason for picking which method to apply to their research; these reasons may include research timeframe, type of data required, and to justify or reject the research hypothesis (Bryman, 2016). Some of the strengths of qualitative research might be weaknesses of the quantitative research study. Some scholars have claimed that there is nothing like qualitative research. In contrast, others have stated that the two research methods need to complement each other because quantitative data are concerned with numbers and primarily deductive (Bryman, 2016). Qualitative data involves words and is majorly inductive (Bowling, 2014). Therefore, it opens for a debate to settle the emerging controversial opinions regarding these research methodologies.
The qualitative research study’s proponent states that there is no hypothesis required to begin research, and the researcher is not compelled by the study as an objective observer (Arghode, 2012). Still, they can learn abundantly about the presenting situation by participating or getting immersed in the situation, making it very flexible (Yadav et al., 2017). Moreover, quantitative research mostly compels respondents into categories that might not suit them to create meaning (Queirós, Faria & Almeida, 2017). The study requires extra resources to conduct, and simple errors in the calculation of data can result in misinterpretation, leading to the unsuitability of the information obtained (Benner, 2019).
On the other hand, quantitative protagonists argue that qualitative research focuses closely on individual results to fail to make connections to the vast situation and possible results causes (Morgan, 2016). They further state that quantitative research requires a hypothesis. The researcher is the ideal objective observer; the study’s topic cannot be influenced by the influences and study participants, enabling analysis to stick to the study objectives (O’Connor & Joffe, 2020). Moreover, every qualitative information can be coded quantitatively; every qualitative can get assigned meaningful numerical values, which can get manipulated to help individuals gain an in-depth insight into data meaning and help examine the particular hypothesis.
Depending on the above debate, both the research methods are suitable depending on the research topic. According to my research topic, qualitative research will best suit it.
One of the reasons why qualitative research fits this topic is that the method considers the human experience (Smith & Firth, 2011). There are many experiences that young girls go through during the menstrual circles that can only be captured through qualitative research. Quantitative research, on the other hand, only captures quantities and not experiences.
Another advantage of qualitative research that makes it suitable for this research is that it is flexible since data does not have to be forced into certain categories to draw meaning (Yates & Leggett, 2016). The researcher of the topic gains the freedom to explore the topic in fullness without the fear that the data collected will not fit into certain classes. This helps to improve the quality of the results.
Qualitative analysis also allows conclusions specific to a certain topic to be drawn (Yates & Leggett, 2016). Unlike quantitative data, whereby certain distributions and models are used across industries, specific topics can be explored fully with qualitative analysis.
Title- Research Proposal on Menstrual Hygiene Management in India
Proposed Dissertation Path
The proposed dissertation path follows the research rationale, themes in the literature review, aims and objectives, and the chosen research method/s.
The study aims to recommend to India the best practices that should be adopted to improve its female population’s menstrual hygiene management practices and put women and adolescent girls in a better position to achieve their full potential.
To explain what extra efforts need to be put in if menstrual hygiene management in India will be successful.
Menstruation is a natural process that many women and young girls in developing economies like in most India cannot have control over. An absorbent material is used to collect the blood that results from the process. Frequent changes are necessary for each menstrual cycle. Menstrual management hygiene involves the proper use of the absorbent material and their proper disposal (Delaney et al., 2017, p.222). There is a lack of awareness of the importance of hygiene in the middle- and lower-income economies.
In many low-income societies, the absorbent material used is substandard, and they include reusable towels of poor-quality pads. Therefore, there is the need for more culturally acceptable, practical and sustainable methods of dealing with menstrual hygiene management in such societies (Vashisht et al., 2018, p.169). Some of the negative impacts associated with the current state of menstrual hygiene management include lack of awareness in the girls, which leads to them having fear, shame, anxiety, and negative feelings about themselves. During disasters, access to menstrual hygiene management facilities becomes inaccessible (Garg & Anand, 2015, p.192).
The Indian society has shown very clear characteristics of gender unequal society. For instance, the literacy rate in women is 55%, while in men, it is 78%. 50% of women are underweight due to lack of access to health facilities. Women also earn lower wages than their male counterparts (Muralidharan, Patil, & Patnaik, 2015, p82). The lack of equality affects the ability of women to manage their lives, such as their menstrual health.
Of the 355 million women in India, only a few can access decent menstrual hygiene management. About 71% of the girls in the country are not equipped with the knowledge to know about menstrual health (Mason et al., 2017, p.183). The taboo of the c in Indian society is one of the catalysts of the lack of this knowledge among women
Even though menstrual hygiene is one of the vital hygiene factors according to various health and education stakeholders, females between the age of menarche and menopause are still experiencing menstrual hygiene management challenges among the developing countries, especially in India (Bay, 2017). This is because Indians do not prioritize girl children as they do boy child. Most families come from a low and middle-class background; thus, they cannot adjust their expenditure to cater to menstrual absorption. Quantitative data has indicated that about sixty-eight million girls attend schools with pathetic WASH (water, sanitation, hygiene) facilities within schools (Elledge et al., 2018). Such conditions have led to increased school dropout among girls because they fear humiliation resulting from menstrual blood leaking and the bad odour smell.
The study will be a qualitative one aiming to increase knowledge regarding menstrual hygiene management challenges and education around the perceived needs of menstruating girls or women in their daily lives from stakeholder perspectives.
The study will employ a systematic qualitative review of published journals in the last ten years that touch on the MHM in developing countries, especially India. The articles will be sieved to enable fetching relevant and precise data to help build a proper understanding of MHM in India (Holtrop, Rabin & Glasgow, 2018). Three search engines like Google will be identified, then text-based queries and index terms like MHM, emerging nations, and India will be searched on the already identified search engines. The search will be limited to those articles published from 2011 to date, and those data having women within the menstrual period will be used. Credible health journal databases such as Medline and science direct will be utilized. The databases have high-quality articles on menstrual health and health sciences in general.
Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative and Review Instrument (JBI-QARI) will be used to assess the studies’ quality to determine those studies’ weaknesses and strengths and explain further how each study might impact the study finding (Bradbury-Jones et al., 2018). Also, the tool will enable sources critical appraisal and generate an aggregate score. Each study will be assigned an appropriate level to research questions to facilitate coding and understand the body of evidence nature (Kim, Sefcik & Bradway, 2017). A theme matrix will be created to cover the large scholarly materials obtained to identify the distribution of common themes among them.
Data analysis and synthesis will involve four steps; in-depth reading of the paper to minimize errors, the second step will be coding of the finding in line-by-line (Vass, Rigby & Payne, 2017). The third step will be the assembling of codes depending on their meaning similarity. The final step will be an interpretation of higher-order analytical themes.
A Rhode, V., 2012. Qualitative and Quantitative Research: Paradigmatic Differences. Global Education Journal, 2012(4).
Bay, SA (2017). Moving Toward a Holistic Menstrual Hygiene Management: An Anthropological Analysis of Menstruation and Practices in Western and Non-Western Societies. menstrualhygieneday.org, 2019, menstrual hygiene management, Retrieved from, https://menstrualhygieneday.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/SHARE_-MHM_policybrief_2017.pdf
Benner, M. (2019). M PRA Munich Personal RePEc Archive From overtourism to sustainability: A research agenda for qualitative tourism development in the Adriatic, viewed 3 March 2021, <https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/214011208.pdf>
Bowling, A., 2014. Research methods in health: investigating health and health services. McGraw-hill Education (UK).
Bradbury-Jones, C., Isham, L., & Taylor, J. (2018). The complexities and contradictions in participatory research with vulnerable children and young people: A qualitative systematic review. Social Science & Medicine, 215, 80-91.
Bryman, A., 2016. Social research methods. Oxford university press.
Delaney, M.M., Maji, P., Kalita, T., Kara, N., Rana, D., Kumar, K., Masoinneuve, J., Cousens, S., Gawande, A.A., Kumar, V. and Kodkany, B., 2017. Improving adherence to essential birth practices using the WHO safe childbirth checklist with peer coaching: experience from 60 public health facilities in Uttar Pradesh, India. Global Health: Science and Practice, 5(2), pp.217-231
Elledge, M.F., Muralidharan, A., Parker, A., Ravndal, K.T., Siddiqui, M., Toolaram, A.P. & Woodward, K.P. (2018). Menstrual hygiene management and waste disposal in low and middle-income Countries—A review of the literature. International journal of environmental research and public health, 15(11), p.2562.
Garg, S., and Anand, T., 2015. Menstruation related myths in India: strategies for combating it. Journal of family medicine and primary care, 4(2), p.184.
Goodburn, C., 2014. Rural-urban migration and gender disparities in child healthcare in China and India. Development and Change, 45(4), pp.631-655.
Holtrop, J.S., Rabin, B.A. & Glasgow, R.E. (2018). Qualitative approaches to use of the RE-AIM framework: rationale and methods. BMC health services research, 18(1), pp.1-10.
Kim, H., Sefcik, J.S. & Bradway, C. (2017). Characteristics of qualitative descriptive studies: A systematic review. Research in nursing & health, 40(1), pp.23-42.
Mason, L., Sivakami, M., Thakur, H., Kakade, N., Beauman, A., Alexander, K.T., van Eijke, A.M., Laserson, K.F., Thakkar, M.B. and Phillips-Howard, P.A., 2017. ‘We do not know’: a qualitative study exploring boys’ perceptions of menstruation in India. Reproductive health, 14(1), p.174.
Morgan, D. L. (2018). Living within blurry boundaries: The value of distinguishing between qualitative and quantitative research. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 12(3), 268-279.
Muralidharan, A., Patil, H., and Patnaik, S., 2015. Unpacking the policy landscape for menstrual hygiene management: implications for school Wash programs in India. Waterlines, pp.79-91
O’Connor, C., & Joffe, H. (2020). Intercoder Reliability in Qualitative Research: Debates and Practical Guidelines. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 19, 160940691989922. https://doi.org/10.1177/1609406919899220
Queirós, A., Faria, D. and Almeida, F., 2017. Strengths and limitations of qualitative and quantitative research methods. European Journal of Education Studies.
Smith, J., & Firth, J. (2011). Qualitative data analysis: the framework approach. Nurse researcher, 18(2), pp.52-62.
Vashisht, A., Pathak, R., Agarwalla, R., Patavegar, B.N., and Panda, M., 2018. School absenteeism during menstruation amongst adolescent girls in Delhi, India. Journal of family & community medicine, 25(3), p.163.
Vass, C., Rigby, D., & Payne, K. (2017). The role of qualitative research methods in discrete choice experiments: a systematic review and survey of authors. Medical Decision Making, 37(3), pp.298-313.
wins4girls.org, (2020), menstrual hygiene management, Retrieved from, http://www.wins4girls.org/resources/2016%20Pakistan%20Baluchistan%20MHM%20formative%20research.pdf
Yates, J., & Leggett, T. (2016). Qualitative research: An introduction. Radiologic Technology, 88(2), 225-231.
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.
You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.Read more
Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.Read more
Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.Read more
Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.Read more
By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.Read more