Personal theoretical framework to guide individual professional



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(iii) Personal theoretical framework to guide individual professional reasoning with client/consumer/community group:

Willard and Sparkman’s Rehab frame

Stroke rehabilitation is an effective systematic approach for those who have just recently experienced a stroke, where the regular and consistent direct indulgences with the services users and while consistently monitoring system would duly be incorporated to potentially prevent any sort of post-stroke complications (Boyt-Schell & Schell, 2008). The aspect of conducting this overall systematic approach will become seamless and accurate with the involvement of occupational rehab framework something that would potentially create insightful assessments of these individuals who have just recently experienced stokes and are at high risks of developing disability, physical complications and even death (Schulz, Hersch, Foust, Godwin, Virani & Ostwald, 2013). The flowing pieces of evidence of stroke rehabilitation effectiveness should be incorporated in the healthcare settings within the age group of 18-65, to effectively develop a therapeutic relationship to meet their goals to effectively assess the impact of changes in sensation, motor function, coordination and cognition on an individual’s capacity to manage daily life task (Sarsak, 2020). Involvement of the ICF model would help this present professional reasoning to effectively guide and reason with the chosen age group and would bring effective outcomes (Stigen, Bjørk & Lund, 2020). ICF model has been developed by WHO, International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health is a framework for comprehending, organising and explaining credible information on functionality and disability something that will potentially provide a conceptual basis and understanding of how to have effective definition and measurement on health and disability. In this case, the age group have suffered from stroke, either very recently or a while ago, considering which this would help them attain an optimal functioning, something that would potentially happen with the involvement of interactions with environment (Camicia, Wang, DiVita, Mix, & Niewczyk, 2016). The incorporation of ICF model would help the patients with stroke to receive services to effectively improve vocational, potential, psychological and physical aspects (Rowland, Cooke & Gustafsson, 2008).

The incorporation of the Willard and Sparkman’s Rehab frame would be considered for the overall understanding of how to effectively provide services and contribute to the overall development of rehabilitations for the individuals those who are suffering from strokes (Mahoney, Peters & Martin, 2017). To have a philosophical understanding of the framework, selected to be incorporated for the present study, involvement of humanism philosophical paradigm would be involved. According to the very concept of humanism, considering the humans as central figure of starting point for moral and philosophical ground to exclusively focus on the potential and agency of the human beings (Legg, Lewis, Robinsons, Drummond & Langhorne, 2017). The concept of human experience and the involvement of rational thinking would be occupationally incorporated to effectively comprehend the individual who have experienced stroke and are presently in the rehabilitation centres to have effective services and durance to potentially improve their physical and psychological and behavioural developments (Gu Kreps, 2016). The idea that “God” or anything almighty in nature provide knowledge is rejected by the humanist, where the conceptualisation and centralising humans as the sole foundation of gaining experience and knowledge (Griffin & McConnell, 2001). Use of humanism would potentially help the framework to gain this very advantage of communicating with the individuals directly  to potentially contribute to their development of rehabilitation process, something that would help them develop their psychological status (Camicia, Wang, DiVita, Mix, & Niewczyk, 2016).

Incorporation of MOHO has also been considered in the occupational models of Willard and Sparkman’s Rehab frame (Boyt-Schell & Schell, 2008). The MOHO model stands for Model for human occupations something that will allow the occupational therapist to effectively comprehend the daily activities, while with that comprehension and it effective application into the therapeutic treatments, the occupational therapists would be able to provide services and support people’s health. The aspect of how meaningful daily activities are and how patterned and motivated these activities could be, especially in cases of the strokes patients who are between 18-65 and are in a stroke rehabilitation centre (Stigen, Bjørk & Lund, 2020). In such health care settings, the modifications of human occupations with the interaction of the environment become convenient. Considering information from te environment, incorporation of personal causation in the aspect of one’s effectiveness in order to master themselves and the environment (Schulz, Hersch, Foust, Godwin, Virani & Ostwald, 2013). According to the framework of Willard and Sparkman’s Rehab frame, the aspect of professionalism, teamwork and communications are some of the most effectively considered aspect and that is where the importance of multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary teams are mentioned by Willard and Sparkman, where the concept of having a series of speculations and occupational information with the involvement of the environment would help to effectively create a comprehensive therapeutic developments towards the patients who have recently experienced strokes, something that will potentially help the improve the overall aspect of their personal, behavioural, and as well psychological improvements (Sarsak, 2020).


  • With the involvement of humanism, and the incorporation of Willard and Sparkman’s Rehab frame, then aspect of consistent framework and an overall development of how to effectively comprehend the overall behavioural changes, overall conceptual relevance and an understanding of how to potentially provide therapeutic services to the individual who are presently at the rehabilitation centres after they have experienced strokes (Martin, Peters & Mahoney, 2018)
  • Consistent decline of skills, difficulties grasping objects can cause barriers when engaging in toileting and dressing occupations resulting on a reliance on family/carers to complete desired occupations (Rowland, Cooke & Gustafsson, 2008). The involvement of an occupational therapists with the involvement of the framework would allow to have a series of developmental undertesting, something that would allow the therapists to potentially gain insights and utilising adaptive aids and incorporating repetitive practice of functional daily tasks as the intervention ensures simulated spaces of the rehabilitation setting are integrated (Mahoney, Peters & Martin, 2017)
  • The effectiveness of using the framework in combination with medicine and physical therapy to carry over functional tasks in short although targeted therapy sessions to prevent fatigue whilst meeting client’s goals would become convenient and that would prevent the individuals with strokes to potentially experiencing any further physical or psychological deterioration over the period (Legg, Lewis, Robinsons, Drummond & Langhorne, 2017)
  • The involvement of team work and an effective communication, according to the framework concept of Willard and Sparkman’s Rehab frame, it would potentially create an effective guiding principles for the occupational therapists to conduct therapeutic developments in rehabilitation setting embodies a rehabilitative trajectory in which practitioners aim to assist the client to return to the highest level of function and independence whilst improving overall quality of life to effectively gain self-care occupations and instruments activities, something that would potentially improve the quality of lives for those individual who had just experienced a stroke (Gu Kreps, 2016)
  • The aspect of considering the rehab framework would also provide the occupational therapists with credible series of insights something that would allow them to effectively consider time into professional practices and potentially contribute to the overall development (Griffin & McConnell, 2001). With the involvement of interdisciplinary team, according to the framework, the overall aspect of communicating and consecutive practices will be professionally and consistently conducted (Camicia, Wang, DiVita, Mix, & Niewczyk, 2016). The aspect of professionalism, teamwork and communications are some of the most effectively considered aspect and that is where the importance of multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary teams are mentioned by Willard and Sparkman, where the concept of having a series of speculations and occupational information with the involvement of the environment would help to effectively create a comprehensive therapeutic developments towards the patients who have recently experienced strokes (Boyt-Schell & Schell, 2008)









Boyt-Schell, B.A., Schell, J.W. (2008). Clinical and Professional Reasoning in Occupational Therapy (2nd ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Camicia, M., Wang, H., DiVita, M., Mix, J., & Niewczyk, P. (2016). Length of Stay at Inpatient Rehabilitation Facility and Stroke Patient Outcome. Rehabilitation Nursing Journal, 41(2), 78-90. . Retrieved from:

Griffin, S.D., & McConnell, D. (2001). Australian Occupational Therapy Practice in Acute Care Settings. Occupational Therapy International, 8(3), 184-197.

Gu Kreps, G.L. (2016). Communication and Effective Interprofessional Health Care Teams. International Archives of Nursing and Health Care, 2(15). . Retrieved from:

Legg, L.A., Lewis, S.R., Robinsons, O.J., Drummond, A., & Langhorne, P. (2017). Occupational Therapy for Adults with Problems in Activities of Daily Living After Stroke. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. . Retrieved from:

Mahoney, W. J., Peters, C. O., & Martin, P. M. (2017). Willard and Spackman’s enduring legacy for future occupational therapy pathways. American Journal of Occupational Therapy71(1), 7101100020p1-7101100020p7. Retrieved from:

Martin, P. M., Peters, C. O., & Mahoney, W. J. (2018). Willard & Spackman’s occupational therapy: The book that captured a profession. In Willard and Spackmans Occupational Therapy, 13th Edition (pp. xxxvii-xlix). Wolters Kluwer Health. Retrieved from:

Rowland, T.J., Cooke, D.M., & Gustafsson, L.A. (2008). Role of Occupational Therapy After Stroke. Official Journal of Indian Academy of Neurology, 11(5), 99-107.

Sarsak, H. I. (2020). Perceptions of the occupational therapy profession among medical and health science students in Saudi Arabia. Annals of International Occupational Therapy3(2), 78-83. Retrieved from:

Schulz, C.H., Hersch, G.I., Foust, J.L., Godwin, K.M., Virani, S., & Ostwald, S.K. (2013). Identifying Occupational Performance Barriers of Stroke Survivors. Physical and Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics, 30(2), 345-349. . Retrieved from:

Stigen, L., Bjørk, E., & Lund, A. (2020). The power of observation. Occupational therapists’ descriptions of doing observations of people with cognitive impairments in the context of community practice. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 1-13. Retrieved form:




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