Paper on Summarization of Youth Sport


Youth Sport

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  1. Summarize in your own words the material from the textbook pp. 167-177
  • Socialization and Sport

The term socialization has been defined as the process through which participants as well their participation experiences are influenced within the youth and high school sport. It has also been indicated as the process of social learning, which entails individual self-identities, self-concept, and self-esteem. Thus, socialization is important in helping people interpret the culture. More so, socialization has been attributed to helping maintain the social order of a group, such as learning to be a part of a team in this aspect. Thus socialization is important in sport as learning to participate in one team may be different while learning to participate on another team.

  • Participation Patterns

From the textbook, the participation pattern in this aspect is Go Out and Play, and thus in this aspect, it was determined that one of the groups that were less likely to be involved in the youth sport were the girls who grow up in low income as well lived up in urban areas. More so, it was indicated that the participation pattern is one that is characterized by inequality in terms of social classes, gender, and communities.

  • Cross-National Similarities and Differences in Youth Sports Participation

The source indicates that teenagers and children who play the same sport can have different socialization and sports experiences due to cross-national and similarities differences. For instance, it was determined that some similarities might be created by globalization having the youths from different countries having the same orientation. In terms of differences, it was determined that natural and local cultural influences might result in different sports interests among the youths from varying countries.

  • Youth Sports Outside the School and in the Golden Triangle

It has been indicated that there is major evidence of golden triangle involvement in youth sport, although it is only a small fraction of the same if compared to the adult in this aspect. The media has contributed to these sports popularity as it has been evident in platforms such as ESPN, which has illustrated bother versions of youth and adult sports.

  1. Describe how the journal article on youth sport overlaps with the course information in the summaries and/or extends it.

The journal on youth sports has provided more information than what has already been provided in the summaries regarding the course information. It had provided the aspect of positive development which has been provided by youth sport beyond the basic knowledge and concept involving the same topic(Coakley, 2011).  The article has provided some aspects and assumptions on the positivity of youth sports, such as improving the health and fitness of the physical well-being of the youth, create motor and other physical capital. Other positive effects included increased self-esteem, confidence, and self-confidence in this aspect for a positive body image. There is also the positive impact of building teamwork, discipline, and responsibility, which the journal article has overlapped. They are other assumption related to at-risk individual and the kind of positivity they can achieve from youth sports such as structuring their lives towards goals and values in this aspect. Youth at risk can also teach themselves obedience and self-control as well providing them with an adult role model.

The journal has also expanded on the effect of including sociology in youth development programs for their benefits. In this aspect, it has been considered that positive youth development is essential as it helps creates assets and personal skills, which include social, emotional, intellectual, and cognitive skills in this aspect. Regardless, the journal has also emphasized the importance of demonstrating to their peers and adults the aspect of social skills such as resolving conflict and exercising personal responsibility among the youth in this aspect. The article has also overlapped the importance of reducing the barriers to sport participation among the youths as it has been determined to have a positive impact among them. Thus considering the course information, the article by Coakley(2011) has expanded on the need for youth sports due to the positive impact it has on their personal development.

  1. provide your reaction/thoughts on the information about youth sport

I think youth sport is the area which should be invested much as it has a major positive impact on youth. In terms of finances, adult sport is a well-paying career, but in youth sports, even if they do not pay, it is good for the positive development of the youths. They wide reason to participated in youths sports as indicated by the summarized information that everyone can agree with in terms of personal development. The youth are at risk of engaging in various peer pressure activities, and they may end up ruining their lives if they do not have somewhere to concentrated and focus their effort. Hence beside developing motors skill, I believe the argument on establishing those at risk has a strong base as the generation need to be engaged in positive activities. More so, there is the aspect of cognitive development that can teach them to be responsible human as well professional as they continue growing. Thus in this aspect, the information provided I find very helpful in motivating the youths to engage in sport for the unlimited positive impact.

College Sport

  1. 2. Summarize in your own words the material from the textbook pp. 199-215
  • The popular and peculiar institution of Big-Time College Sports in the U.S

 A college athlete is considered a kind of commercial entertainment and thus considered as the world of big-time college sport. The Big-Time Colleges sport is considered popular as it was the first thing to be commercialized with the higher education of the United States. This is an institution that is considered to have originated from a humble background in 1852, where there was no mass media coverage or paying spectators during those times. Then in the second half of the ninth century, there was steady and slow growth before it became organized and controlled by the alumni and the higher education institution. Late it expanded in the 20th century where they even started hiring professional coaches as well establishing the faculty of sport, completely limiting the control of the sport among the student. More so, there was an increase in intercollegiate athletic in the ninetieth and twentieth century to the extent where standards, academic eligibility, and other aspect were considered to engage in college athletics, making them popular and peculiar institutions.

  • Stratification and organization conflicts in College Sports Today

The issue of conflict has also been occurring in recent times, which involved conference realignment shaping the college sports landscape in 2010. Another conflict in today’s college sports has been based on inequalities that exist in this area. More so, there is the issue of treatment of the amateur as students denying them the chance of getting any payment to bring conflict on college sport. The stratification for this has been the creation of athletic scholarship and grant-in-aid, thus providing the athletes the financial aids in regard to their capability instead of academic qualifications.  There is also conflict in college in terms of gender equity and women sports due to the increased participation in intercollegiate athletics

  • From the AIAW to NCAA Women’s Sport

Association Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW) can be viewed in aspect of gender inequality, but the main issue with the NCAA, according to the textbook, was the explosion of women’s sport in 1970. This resulted in the formation of new organizations which could facilitate women’s competition in college sport. It has been considered that the establishment of AIAW market the first governing body regarding women sport. It has been indicated that the AIAW had major goals of which involved embracing an amateur model of athletic akin as well establishment of policies where student policies would be considered and respected. More so, their aim was to create a different organization from NCAA where it could be less commercialized, less bureaucratic, but more responsive to the current needs. This saw AIAW be based on the integrity of the individual institution as well in self-policing.

  • The Business of College Sports in the Intercollegiate Golden Triangle

It has been indicating that the golden triangle usually goes where there are opportunities for revenue and branding, as it is evident when AIAW wanted to establish itself differently from NCAA. It has been indicated that a university is usually a not-for-profit enterprise. Still, the idea for college sports has been commercialized, making this high education look more like a corporation. This has resulted in big-time teams and athletes being organized in the form of a centralized structure controlled by autocratic authority. More so, it has been indicating that athletic directors usually embrace the commercialization of college sports regardless of not acknowledging that concept. Another factor that has made college sport to be more like business is the element of accountability in the college sport.

  1. Describe how the journal article on college sport overlaps with the course information in the summaries and /or extends it.

Rheenen’s (2012) article provides more details about one area of the college that usually results in a conflict: the exploitation of college sports. They have always been the question of whether there is a need to pay college athletes and the kind of implication both in the philosophical and psychological aspect that the overexploitation issue has. In this paper, whether colleges athlete needs to be paid has been considered a problem that cannot be solved only through public opinion but needs a legal intervention that would consider other factors in play in this issue. According to several experts, to limit the power of the NCAA, a series of the lawsuit is essential in this aspect and which would be based on the right to publicity and taxation, as well focused on anti trust violation.

Rheenen argues exploitation as a moral concept containing social, fiscal, moral overtones, and educational factors. More so, Rheenen indicates that the exploitation aspect usually involves money and other social values such as education, and these aspects usually have a different impact on different groups. Regardless, the article has insisted that exploitation occurs when one party receives underserved and unfair benefits from the relationships or transactions. In this aspect, the article considers by comparing the surplus values to the marginal values, and it is possible to determine unfair financial exchange in regard to colleges. Thus it is easier to determine the kind of economic exploitation that occurs in the colleges, while on the other hand, many have the opinion that these college athletes are compensated in terms of scholarship. Thus this article has been essential in expanding the issue of exploitation which is among the common source of conflict in the colleges, as it had been indicated in the learning materials.

  1. Provide your reaction/thoughts on the information about colleges sport

I think college sport is one the stages of making professional sports athletes. The field has evolved and grown as indicate by the various learning material and the way it was 100 years ago is much advanced in terms of its organization and structure. Regardless, I think the more it becomes complex and commercialized, the more it continues to bring up the controversy whether college athletes should be paid or not. This is an area where every person has have had their opinion based on varying aspect if reason where some already thinking  that athletes are compensated in other means such as scholarship between the colleges. In another aspect, the issue has been considered as overexploitation, and thus, more legal intervention is needed to give a ground on what should be done. Regardless of the varying view, everyone can see the value that college sports has brought in terms of economic and social implication.



Coakley, J. (2011). Youth Sports. Journal Of Sport And Social Issues35(3), 306-324. doi: 10.1177/0193723511417311

Van Rheenen, D. (2012). Exploitation in college sports: Race, revenue, and educational reward. International Review For The Sociology Of Sport48(5), 550-571. doi: 10.1177/1012690212450218

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