Paper on Peace Building in Sudan



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1.0 Introduction

The United Nations Secretary-General describes peace-building as “activity to identify and support mechanisms that will tend to strengthen and solidify peace to avert a relapse into conflict” in his 1992 report Agenda for Peace (Boustrous-Ghali, 1995). However, these broad conceptions of peace-building need to be refined, particularly in light of the different types of conflict that plague the early twenty-first century. It is helpful to use the phrase ‘political violence’ to characterize conflict that encompasses various conditions as full-scale armed war, military occupation, and popular resistance, as discussed in Zwi and Ugalde’s work ( 2008). The four basic types of political violence identified by these authors are structural, repressive, reactive, and combative. These types of conflict refer to a wide range of political violence, from social imbalances in resources and power (structural political violence) to militarism and war (combative political violence). In addition, the framework includes repressive political violence by the state, such as political assassinations, torture, disappearances, detention, and harassment, as well as violence against the state in the form of coups d’etat, guerrilla warfare, and revolutionary force (informal political violence) (reactive political violence). There is a great need to understand the evolving local actors’ interests and incorporate their political, economic, and social interests in the peace implementation process, especially issues of power relations and power dynamics among these local actors, which is relevant to be explored.

2.0 Literature Review

Contemporary literature illustrated the importance of inclusiveness in post-ethnic reconstruction and development. Since the implementation project is provided through the growing local actors with effective participation mechanisms, the accessibility of certain ethnic groups in state power and state apparatus based on relevancy remains a challenge to inclusiveness. Evidence exploited based on ethnic power relation database, Gaspart, F. & Pecher, P. (2019). The external risk factors impact local risk factors as a result of shift occur at the macro-level either within the state structure or the globalized structure; this contributes significantly to exacerbation of local risk factors through lack of active participation, having said that, peace and development project in post-ethnic conflict reconstruction is a nexus-oriented project that needs pay great attention to the external factors or the global shift in which can trigger local risk factors due to transformation within the society Wolff, Jonas, et al. (2021).

Nexus-oriented projects reinforce the relation between local actors by incorporating their different interests to increase inclusiveness and power balance. Regional actors in this study refer to any group anchored to peace and development project; however, local actors can easily pose a threat to the peace-building project in the absence of active participation, in which some local actor has excellent access to the state and continue to hijack the peace projects and that lead to endless ethnic conflict, Ruppey, Samantha. (2021). Power relation and power dynamic within local actors network are significant to peace and development project, some of the local actors have great access to the government, this imbalance of power practice often is the primary cause of political violence and lead to vast civil war in the post-conflict peace agreement, having said that, my research will explore the power practice behaviors within the local actors’ participation and how these practice effect the process affected implementation. At the same time, inclusiveness occurs through power-sharing, which balances the power dynamic and relationship within the local actors per se. Still, the ability to share and pose a great risk to the implantation projects, the goal of power sharing is to make civil war less likely and increase relationships within the local actors’ networks and participation Bormann, Nils-Christian et al. (2021). The implementation score of the peace agreement is an indication and measurement of how state and non-state actors collaborate in a certain degree of power practice and power relation; furthermore, the implementation score is directly or indirectly related to local actors network capital, that specific projects are disputed over where to be implemented and by whom and why to be implemented in a particular territory, these different and complex interests within local actors network, is the more likely impact the overall implementation score and considered as local risk factors pose by these intertwine interests. Madhav Joshi, Jason Michael Quinn, and Patrick M. Regan (2015).

The growing local actors’ capitals and lack of participation can interact and react to the external factors, however, in this research, I will explore the link between the implementation score; however factors pose by the local actors, the evidence, and data from the University of Notre Dame clearly indicated that in their peace accord matrix, there is a complex link between imitation score and risk factors resulted lack of participation, the more these local risk factors, the less implementation score from, this visualization is evidence of failure to incorporate the various complex interests of the local actors into the peace and development projects (Joshi, 2015). In such an intense environment, the overall implementation score and the gap between local actors’ networks regarding power dynamic, power relation, and inclusiveness in relation to active participants continue to be the source of great risk factors that create a new political violence reality.  In this research, I will explore how to mitigate these risk factors and how to increase the implementation score? And try to understand the power dynamic within local actors concerning their ethnic line and how that contributes to the implementation process? in addition to that, I will identify elements within sociological factors and how that attributed to the inequality and exclusiveness? I pose questions in relation to the above matter and hope to answer them to reflect the reality of peace and development implementation and prevent further political violence in Sudan.

3.0 Research Aims

Ethnicity has been a sensitive topic worldwide, resulting in bloodbaths witnessed in the twenty-first century catalyzed by leaders such as Adolf Hitler of Nazi Germany. The tragic killings in Rwanda were instigated by the differences between the Tutsi and the Hutus ethnic groups. The effects of these incidents still exist in the physical and memorial forms. To avoid the repetition of such malicious and inhumane acts in the present and future, peace policies and conflict resolution, and reconciliations should be concisely and accurately formulated. The study aims at determining how to resolve and maintain harmony regardless of ethnicity. Thus reaching the reality of these aims will incorporate a substantial review of literature materials and applying the methods learned.

4.0 Research Objectives

The main goal of this study seeks to have a comprehensive insight on how the involvement of local actors in peace implementation will either have a positive impact or disastrous effects when developing and reconstructing the politics and the society in the aftermath of an ethnic conflict.

  1. Investigate the gap of participation at the grassroots level.
  2. To describe how class and ethnic dynamics trigger ethnic conflicts through the social stratification and social fabric.
  • Do in-depth research on the intersectional and class conflict aspects within a socio-political context.
  1. Explore and delve into these complex sociological dimensions concerning power relations and power dynamics.

5.0 Hypothesis

The research will espouse empirical data, and mainly limited to the qualitative method that is issuing open-ended questionnaires, conducting interviews, through observation, and holding groups discussion on:

H 1. Lack of equality in the distribution of resources

H 2. Differences between the economic classes

H 3. Sociological dimensions on political relation and power dynamic.

6.0 Scope of the study

The study will uncover the complex and fundamental issues about recurrent warfare, including the perspective of refugees and internally displaced people on post-ethnic reconstruction and development. The research will also address two risk factors within the local actor’s network participation. The idea of inclusiveness within implementation process, power relation, and the power dynamic that intersect with the socio-political history concerning local community participation, and then follow the patterns of resistance or repeatable circumstances resulted in the absence of the risk factors and extensively try to understand and compare other situation in other places but objectively aiming to examine the implementation score from peace accord matrix.

7.0 Methodology

Over the last 25 years, the research base in peace and conflict studies has exploded. We now have a better understanding of why disputes occur, how violence or conflict persists, and what can be done to prevent or settle disputes. Parallel to this, peace and conflict drivers have been studied by innovation and technology actors in an attempt to contribute to more peaceful societies (Miklian & Hoelschar 2018). Therefore, to arrive at a conclusion, the study will adopt both primary and secondary sources of data to collect comprehensive data where Questionnaires and interviews will be conducted; these methods are combined as an avenue of procuring accurate information from several people through direct interactions and questions geared to bring out the aim of the research.

8.0 Population of the study

The study will involve three majorly affected areas, Darfur, Southern Kordofan, and the Blue Nile. The below table shows the different numbers of people who will be interviewed and those who will answer Questionnaires. They will be from the three areas and provide relevant information.

S/Nos Name of Areas No. of people
1 Darfur  350
2 Southern Kordofan  250
3 Blue Nile  300

The table above henceforth demonstrates the three selected areas and people and numbers of people.

9.0 Sampling and Sample size

According to Bell et al. (2018), sampling is an effective way of identifying a sample size for the benefit of speedy data collection, lowering inefficiencies, and increase the accuracy of results from the general population. The sampling process will be on respondents from the three areas, Darfur, Southern Kordofan, and the Blue Nile, to enhance the expansive collection of data from different sources and enable the researcher to view all these geographical areas in the open-ended questions.

The sample size in a population under study reflects the number of units chosen from the people to represent the whole population in the survey (Lavrakas, 2008). The respondents will be further reduced to a manageable number through stratified sampling that seeks to pick individuals from different stratus to give accurate sampling (Arnab, 2017). In this investigation, the investigator aims to use probability sampling to choose the respondents from the three the population representing the three areas. The choice of probability sampling lies in the fact that perpetrators of the insidious violent actions in all areas are characterized of the exact nature, and therefore quota sampling on the population will serve the whole population.

10.0 Test of Validity

Validity is a measurement of how well an instrument performs following expectations (Surucu and Maslakci) went on to say that content validity is a sort of qualitative validity in which the study area is prominent. They claim that there are no obvious ways to measure validity because of domain uncertainty. The indicators in the study will be calculated using content validity. In addition, the construct validity of a study is a measure of how well the notion of the study has been integrated into reality (Mujere, 2016). In a nutshell, validity is the ability to conceptualize ideas.

11.0 Significance

This study will help resolve the ethnic and political violence experienced in a different part of the world by providing expansive and detailed guidelines and principles on how to approach the specific issue. Furthermore, the study will provide essential foundational knowledge about the peace implementation risks posed by local actors and how to navigate the obstacles. And give an exceptional framework for further researches in the future. Students will also broadly benefit from this research as they engage in peace-building initiatives.

12.0 Resources Required

To successfully conduct this study, the researcher will need funds to facilitate transportation, food, and accommodation. Furthermore, due to insecurity in particular regions, the researcher will need protection to complete the study uninterruptedly. The researcher will be required to request permission to conduct the research and raise awareness about the investigation. The awareness will familiarize the locals with what is expected, and only the volunteers will participate. Since illiteracy is high, an extra effort will be put in place to maximize face-to-face interviews and carefully select suitable people to fill in the Questionnaires. Time resource is also vital in allowing respondents to read, understand and offer feedback to the objectives understudy. Also, a reasonable amount of time is required in analyzing results to form conclusions on the subject under study.


The below table shows a step-by-step timetable of a specific time and the activities to be carried out simultaneously.

Period Scheduled activities
September 2022-December 2022 -In-depth reading & start writing

-literature review


-Courses & research design


January 2023-April 2023 -Continue reading & writing


-Dissertation prospectus

May 2023-August 2023 -Field trips

-Data collection

September 2023-December 2023 -Writing and preparation of the final thesis
January 2024-April 2024 -Defending the thesis


Reflection of the Thesis

The goal of grassroots process design is to strengthen local actors’ sense of ownership in an intervention process, empower local communities, and create a more conducive climate for long-term peace. It emphasizes that peace-building efforts must provide opportunities for individuals and groups to recover their cultural identities and reclaim their autonomy (Barnett et al., 2014). Urgent humanitarian initiatives can be constructive in crisis situations and virtually always reflect honorable humanitarian objectives. Given the vulnerable position of post-conflict populations, however, there is a high risk that external involvement will have unintended and detrimental implications (Barnett et al., 2014). This is due in part to the fact that the peace-building process involves the introduction of a new element of interactions between conflict-affected groups and the outside actors that are trying to help them. Intervention tactics are significantly less likely to succeed if parties believe that outsiders have imposed peace-building policies.




Arnab, R. (2017). Survey sampling theory and applications. Academic Press.

Barnett, M., Fang, S., & Zürcher, C. (2014). Compromised Peace-building. International Studies Quarterly, 58(3), 608–620.

Bell, E., Bryman, A., & Harley, B. (2018). Business Research Methods (5th ed.). Oxford University Press.

Bormann, N.-C., Pengl, Y. I., Cederman, L.-E., & Weidmann, N. B. (2021). Globalization, Institutions, and Ethnic Inequality. International Organization, 1–33.

Fehl, C., Peters, D., Wisotzki, S., & Wolff, J. (2019). Justice and peace : the role of justice claims in international cooperation and conflict. Springer Vs, Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden Gmbh.

Gaspart, F., & Pecher, P. (2019). Ethnic Inclusiveness of the Central State Government and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of African Economies, 28(2), 176–201.


Joshi, M., Quinn, J. M., & Regan, P. M. (2015). Annualized implementation data on comprehensive intrastate peace accords, 1989–2012. Journal of Peace Research, 52(4), 551–562.

Miklian, J., & Hoelscher, K. (2017). A new research approach for Peace Innovation. Innovation and Development, 8(2), 189–207.

Mujere, N. (2016). Sampling in research. In Mixed methods research for improved scientific study (pp. 107-121). IGI Global.


Sürücü, L., & Maslakçi, A. (2020). Validity and Reliability In Quantitative Research. Business & Management Studies: An International Journal, 8(3), 2694–2726.

United Nations Development Programme. (1994). Human development report 1994. Oxford University Press For The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP.

Wolf, J., & Lavrakas, P. J. (2008). Self-administered questionnaire. Encyclopedia of survey research methods, 804-805.

Zwi, A. B., Ugalde, A., & Richards, P. (2008). Health Services, Effects of War and Political violence on*. Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace, & Conflict, 933–943.


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