Outline of risk factors and pathophysiology



Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Outline of risk factors and pathophysiology
Just from $9/Page
Order Essay










Table of Contents

Introduction. 2

Body. 2

  1. Outline of risk factors and pathophysiology. 2
  2. Discussion on the two comprehensive post-operative assessments. 2
  3. Discussion on one potential complication. 3
  4. A plan of care for risk reduction. 3
  5. Application of Gibb’s cycle and reflection. 5

Conclusion. 5

References. 6





The present essay would attempt to create a care plan that would benefit patient with postoperative wound infections. With the considerations of evidence-based practices and proper person-centric attributes, this essay would attempt to assess all the necessary and relevant areas within the disciplines of nursing (Gethin, Probst, Stryja, Christiansen & Price, 2020). With a proper elaboration of risk factors and pathophysiology, the study assessment would attempt to consider the comprehensive post-operative assessments to comprehend how that could possibly help the patient with identifying the potential underlying complications while developing a care plan that could be effective in providing treatments properly. With proper justification, the care plan would be further elevated.


1. Outline of risk factors and pathophysiology

Some of the most effective risk factors for a patient with post-operative wound infection are-if the patient is an elderly adult, having medical complications or diseases could increase the risk factor, weak immunity system, prolonged preoperative stay, infection at remote site, even overweight and malnutrition (Li, Renick, Senkowsky, Nair & Tang, 2020). The complex process of postoperative wound infection, is a complex process where the load and the virulence of the intruding microbes often predisposed by genetic factors where it is conducted by prime and pre-triggered host immune inflammatory response o pathogen. The localised excavation of the skin where under the soft skin, the invasion of the pathogenic organism causes the infection (Sandy-Hodgetts, Ousey & Howse, 2017).

2. Discussion on the two comprehensive post-operative assessments

Post-operative assessments of surgical patients commence during peri-operative period where the involvement of health professionals is consistent (Stryja et al. 2020). With the involvement of accurate monitoring and repeatedly consistent clinical assessments, where identifying surgical complications are required to be recognised immediately and accurately.

  1. The first post-operative assessment for a surgical patient would be to monitor effectively while supporting all the major organ system and taking care of cardiorespiratory and renal functions while managing the fluid and electrolyte balance to create awareness for surgical complications for any potential infections (Nilsson, Gruen & Myles, 2020). After the patient is being returned form the operations theatre, the baseline of the patients’ conditions is assessed where the identification of the potential problems is to be conducted on transfer from their operative departments (Stryja et al. 2020). In order to detect any clinical deterioration, straightforward assessments are necessary and routine data are to be collated and trends getting established to ensure that the patient are thoroughly assessed and monitored who recently underwent a surgical procedure. Some of the most common parameters such as blood pressure, urine monitoring, water intake, blood glucose, pulse rate, peripheral oxygen saturation, temperature or even respiratory rate and pain score post operations are really relevant for an effective assessment (Moody, Nicholls, Shamji, Bridge, Dhanju & Singh, 2018).
  2. The second assessment for postoperative surgical patients would be to sepsis control and pain relief supply to ensure that they are being assessed with circulatory volume, respiratory and cognitive status from the point of being in the recovery room to the point of being discharged from the post-operative recovery room. Measuring the variables multiple times, a day and solely depending on the type of surgery that is involved would allow the RN to effectively take decisions while considering all the suitable and relevant evidences available (Li, Renick, Senkowsky, Nair & Tang, 2020). Understanding what are the possible complications that could arise and while conducting a scenario analyses and then predicting te possible solutions for it would help the GP and RN effectively conduct the assessment and help the patient recover successfully (Li, Nylander, Smith, Han & Gunnar, 2018).

3. Discussion on one potential complication

Development and risk factors of wound dehiscence

One of the major complications that has high risks of occurring amongst the patients who underwent surgical procedures are infection or wound dehiscence. It is a complication that could lead to a wide range of clinical complications (Judson, 2019). The development of wound dehiscence occurs when the wound opens up or the sutures are not performed properly and it open prematurely, leaving the wound open and prone a series of subsequent complications such as bacterial infections, further deterioration of the incision or the wound complications and making the entire aspect of operations an unsuccessful and vain performance (Harris, 2021). The total serration of the recently cut wounds could lead the patient’s life at risk, meaning it could lead to wound evisceration where it causes a massive medical emergency. In cases of a stomach operations, if the patient experiences a wound dehiscence, that could potentially lead to the development of open wounds and internal organs sticking out, making the entire situation extremely vulnerable and pit everything in clinical crisis (Gethin, Probst, Stryja, Christiansen & Price, 2020). No matter how successful the operation is, if the wound dehiscence occurs, it puts the patient in even a vulnerable patient.

One nursing assessment in post-operative wound infection

After then patient is being reported as someone who is currently experiencing a wound dehiscence and that the GP or the RN and all the other medical professionals are well informed, the primary responsibilities of the RN would be to conduct a proper assessment where reviews of fever, or any sort of purulent discharge from the open wounds are occurring are mot are to be monitored (Fernandes-Taylor et al. 2017). Taking care of how the wound could possibly heal, comprehending how deep the wound is, considering what kind of operation has been performed, and performing a continual holistic assessment of the patient where the factors that could possibly heal the wound and several suitable interventions are to be altered and administered accordingly for better outcomes. Making sure that the restitch or sutures are performed the second time with skilled medical professional and the involvement of competency is consistent (Ellis, 2020). Considering active management, the moment wound infection is suspected would help the RN to have a credible control over the entire situation. Making sure that the RN is collecting sound swabs for culture and sensitivity analysis and is duly sending them to the lab to effectively analyse and clinically assess and comprehend the wounds. Based on the suspected pathogen and comprehending the same would allow the RN to effectively commence the assessment process and take effective decisions, suitable for the patient (Ding, Lin, Marshall & Gillespie, 2017).

4. A plan of care for risk reduction

Risk mitigating care plan

Care plan actions Rationales
Conducting the assessment and comprehending the existence or identifying the common cause of the infection (Gethin, Probst, Stryja, Christiansen & Price, 2020) The mentioned factors would possibly represent the body’s first line of defence and would potentially provide the RN with indications of the infections (Sandy-Hodgetts, Ousey & Howse, 2017).
Assessing to comprehend the presence of the infectious processes in the membrane or mucous (Nilsson, Gruen & Myles, 2020) Arising signs and symptoms such as swelling and tenderness, pain etc.
Monitoring WBC effectively Increasing WBC, the body’s count indicating the body’s ability to combat foreign pathogens whereas low white blood counts indicating severe risks of further infection, post-surgery (Stryja et al. 2020).
Checking the patient’s immunization history and all sorts of medical history in general Insufficient immunization in that patient’s body would make the RN extra aware and would allow them to take decisions accordingly to treat the patient and mitigate the risks of infections (Moody, Nicholls, Shamji, Bridge, Dhanju & Singh, 2018)
Assessing body temperature, monitoring all the organs systems and checking up on the wounds or the injury at all time (Li, Nylander, Smith, Han & Gunnar, 2018) Signs of infections would be detected; inflammatory response will be recognised and development of the internal would be analysed
Monitoring the fluid intake and assessing the urine output Thinking out secretions. Would prevent stasis of urine from frequent diluting and emptying process of bladder, something that could be detrimental for the patients’ recovery.
Cleaning and checking for any sorts of cross-contamination or further infection and finding any indication of massive wound dehiscence Will indicate any sorts of potential risks and infection and would immediately shed light upon them to create awareness amongst the RNs and they would take the clinical decisions, accordingly (Li, Renick, Senkowsky, Nair & Tang, 2020)


Justification of the plan

Although all the actions mentioned above that are to be conducted and perform by the registered nurse, they have associated rationale to potentially clarify why and how important it is for the nurses to perform those actions and include them into their care plans (Judson, 2019). The aspect of staying cautious under such as stressful environment and comprehending the weightage of the situation would be the first priority of the RN and having these steps that are mentioned in the care plan for a patient who has a possibility of getting post-operative wound infections or possibly have developed one already would help them effectively receive the necessary treatments and care services suitable for their immediate recoveries (Harris, 2021). Having the RN directly involved and performing these aspects of their clinical disciplines while considering the evidences available at their disposal and developing the plan extremely patient-centric would help them primarily focus on their patients and would be able to participate in the clinical decision-making proves, where the possibilities of positive outcomes would gradually increase (Gethin, Probst, Stryja, Christiansen & Price, 2020).

5. Application of Gibb’s cycle and reflection

As a RN within the disciplines of clinical process, I have experienced several critical and considerably grave situations for patients immediately after they have received their surgeries (Fernandes-Taylor et al. 2017). I personally felt cautious and at the same time responsible where making sure that I do everything I could possibly do has been my first priority. Analysis what is going wrong and what is wrong and comprehending the dichotomy of both good and bad have helped me to effectively analyse the overall situation and assess accordingly (Ellis, 2020). With all the clinical experience and all the social and professional skills I analysed and attempted to comprehend the situation to effectively come up with the best suitable solutions. Based on the action plan solution, I continued to execute all the necessary actions required for the possible improvement of the situations (Ding, Lin, Marshall & Gillespie, 2017).


The essay has considered all the possible indication and health monitoring assessment process to effectively analyse and evaluate the possible complications that a patient could experience who recently underwent a surgical procedure (Sandy-Hodgetts, Ousey & Howse, 2017). With that, the development of an action care plan has been conducted and how evidence-based practices could possibly help then RN to effectively perform and conduct all the clinical actions while taking relevant decision and execute them effectively has been a consistent aspect of the entire discussion of the essay.




Ding, S., Lin, F., Marshall, A. P., & Gillespie, B. M. (2017). Nurses’ practice in preventing postoperative wound infections: an observational study. Journal of wound care26(1), 28-37. Retrieved from: https://www.magonlinelibrary.com/doi/abs/10.12968/jowc.2017.26.1.28

Ellis, P. (2020). Principles of care planning. Patient Assessment and Care Planning in Nursing, 90. Retrieved from: https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&id=5kS8DwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA90&dq=THE+PRINCIPLES+OF+EVIDENCE-BASED+and+PERSON-CENTRED+CARE+PLAN+OF+post+operative+wound+infection&ots=BN2NmExOLx&sig=TMY3ewaE_06hUymWtC9cptaLgK8#v=onepage&q&f=false

Fernandes-Taylor, S., Gunter, R. L., Bennett, K. M., Awoyinka, L., Rahman, S., Greenberg, C. C., & Kent, K. C. (2017). Feasibility of implementing a patient-centered postoperative wound monitoring program using smartphone images: a pilot protocol. JMIR research protocols6(2), e26. Retrieved from: https://www.researchprotocols.org/2017/2/e26?utm_source=TrendMD&utm_medium=cpc&utm_campaign=JMIR_TrendMD_0

Gethin, G., Probst, S., Stryja, J., Christiansen, N., & Price, P. (2020). Evidence for person-centred care in chronic wound care: A systematic review and recommendations for practice. Journal of wound care29(Sup9b), S1-S22. Retrieved from: https://www.magonlinelibrary.com/doi/abs/10.12968/jowc.2020.29.Sup9b.S1

Harris, M. (2021). Understanding Person-Centred Care for Nursing Associates. SAGE. Retrieved from: https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&id=fbryDwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=THE+PRINCIPLES+OF+EVIDENCE-BASED+and+PERSON-CENTRED+CARE+PLAN+OF+post+operative+wound+infection&ots=7h5IgiX1CF&sig=J4Lj3KQoWUTRGS2mJoUepEecGUU#v=onepage&q&f=false

Judson, R. T. (2019). Management of surgical wounds. Textbook of Surgery, 45-48. Retrieved from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/9781119468189.ch6

Li, S., Renick, P., Senkowsky, J., Nair, A., & Tang, L. (2020). Diagnostics for Wound Infections. Advances in Wound Care. Retrieved from: https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/wound.2019.1103

Li, X., Nylander, W., Smith, T., Han, S., & Gunnar, W. (2018). Risk factors and predictive model development of thirty-day post-operative surgical site infection in the veterans administration surgical population. Surgical infections19(3), 278-285. Retrieved from: https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/sur.2017.283

Moody, L., Nicholls, B., Shamji, H., Bridge, E., Dhanju, S., & Singh, S. (2018). The person-centred care guideline: from principle to practice. Journal of Patient Experience5(4), 282-288. Retrieved from: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2374373518765792

Nilsson, U., Gruen, R., & Myles, P. S. (2020). Postoperative recovery: the importance of the team. Anaesthesia75, e158-e164. Retrieved from: https://associationofanaesthetists-publications.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/anae.14869

Sandy-Hodgetts, K., Ousey, K., & Howse, E. (2017). Top ten tips: management of surgical wound dehiscence. Wounds International8(1), 11-15. Retrieved from: http://eprints.hud.ac.uk/id/eprint/31374/3/Sandy-Hodgetts%20K%20Ousey%20K%20and%20Howse%20K%20(2017)%20Wounds%20International.pdf

Stryja, J., Sandy-Hodgetts, K., Collier, M., Moser, C., Ousey, K., Probst, S., … & Xuereb, D. (2020). Surgical site infection: Prevention and management across health-care sectors. Journal of wound care29(Sup2b), S1-S72. Retrieved from: https://www.magonlinelibrary.com/doi/abs/10.12968/jowc.2020.29.Sup2b.S1




Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment Help Service Works

1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essay GET A PERFECT SCORE!!! smile and order essay Buy Custom Essay

Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more
error: Content is protected !!
Open chat
Need assignment help? You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp using +1 718 717 2861

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.
  +1 718 717 2861           + 44 161 818 7126           [email protected]
  +1 718 717 2861         [email protected]