National Bureau of Economic Research Questions



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Discussion Questions and Exercises.












Chapter 1: Discussion Question and Exercise 3.

  1. An information system comprises five components: computer hardware, telecommunications, computer software, data warehouses and databases, and human resources and procedure.
  2. The following are examples of hardware; hard disk drive, RAM, the CPU, graphic cards etc.
  3. Microsoft Windows is an operating system of the computer component known as a software component (Tanuska and Skripcak, 2011)
  4. A software developed for helping the user do specific tasks is known as application software.
  5. The human is an essential element as the people are required to run the procedures and system they adhere so that concept in comprehensive databases and the data warehouses can be made into learning that can interpret the past and guide future action.

Exercise 3. Several people currently use information systems in their daily lives, whether on shopping, research, checking bank accounts, checking the latest news, or catching up on social media platforms like Facebook. Every day, most people in the globe wake up and check the internet, an instance of an information system, like a newspaper and check on it each day. Thus information systems serve a more significant role in the daily lives (information system | Definition, Examples, & Facts, 2021)

Chapter 2: Discussion Question and Exercise 2.

  1. As learnt in the first chapter, an information system comprises five components: software, hardware, people, data, and processes. The parts of the computing devices that are physical, the ones that can be touched, are known as hardware. Such devices include; laptop, desktop, tablet, e-readers, input devices, storage devices, output devices and even mobile phones.
  2. Mobile computing rose as a new paradigm for augmenting several mobile devices by integrating cloud computing on the mobile environment to overcome obstacles associated with limitations of resources, security, and reliability. The limited resources are storage, battery life, the capacity of CPU processing and even scalability and availability. In distributed MCC, computation offloading is a vital innovation for improving performance and reducing local executions expenses via migrating heavy tasks in computation for powerful servers within the clouds. Mobility can never be neglected in MCC. Mobility, along with heterogeneous network surroundings, intermittent connectivity turns a frequently occurred status that can fail offloading requests. As a result, intermittent connectivity incurred through user mobility remains critical in distinguishing between old cloud computing and mobile cloud computing (Shi et al,,(2017).
  3. Moore’s Law within the semiconductor manufacturing industry was used for describing the predictable historical evolution of one manufacturing technology platform, which has been continuously minimizing the expenses of circuits on fabricating electronics from the mid-1960s. In 1965, Moore’s Law turned into an industry synonym for ongoing, periodic minimization in both size and cost for elements in an electronic circuit. Technologies for such manufacturing platform was synchronized and coordinated throughout several engineering fields, involving materials, ultraclear precision, optical systems, factory automation and even enhanced computer software for modelling in each of the areas. For instance, cheaper hardware in computing meant more affordable engineering after modelling for furthering the cost reduction of semiconductors for future computers. The result of the law was an industrial dynamic, since the mid-1960s, had efficiently worked liked a shrinking virtual machine used for electronic circuits. Regularly, innovation nodes delivered almost 30% in the smallest dimension that was reliable for manufacturing silicon water. Thus, this meant 50% depreciation in the sector consisting of the minor manufacturable feature of an electronic circuit and a doubling in density, Flamm,(2018).
  4. ICME stands for Integrated Computational materials engineering; through its name and nature, it draws o set of several modelling tools and data sources for modelling the performance along with the life-cycle of products and components. ICME has the goal of describing the part features and production along with service life cycles and, due to such purpose, draws on previous data being produced by the rest of the models or on other models giving the same desired data. There are several steps of retrieving specific desired information piece from the internet, from simulations or databases. One of the steps addresses multiple questions on the availability of desired information, like whether a descriptor is present in the namespace. The second question Is Can a descriptor of the wanted information be derived from previous existing descriptors in namespace through well-defined operations? The next question needing address is whether necessary to amend the namespace. The last question can be: Is a value given to a specific descriptor in the model’s description state? Reddy et al,,(2017).
  5. Over the last thirty years, as personal computers have turned from technical marvel to everyday lives’ necessity, it has become a commodity. Personal computers have become a commodity with the senses that there is little difference between computers and critical factors that manage the sales and price. Several manufacturers around the globe are creating parts for PC. Dozens of companies purchase the parts and assemble them into computers. As commodities, there exists no essential difference between computers created by different companies. The margins of profit for PC are razor-thin, making hardware developers seek lower-cost manufacturing (Bourgeois and Bourgeois, 2021).
  6. The CPU is the brains of the device. (Definitions and Hope, 2021)
  7. In the current product development, there is more utilization of virtual tools to reduce physical prototypes and environmental testing. Virtual testing results in minimization of development time, leading to cost-saving and increasing quality because of the quick evaluation of various designs. A development regardless of physical prototypes can contribute to enhancements in economic and environmental efficiency within the processes of product development. Particularly potential environmental effects can hardly get tested by actual prototypes. Virtual methods allow the possibility of determining the environmental impact over products’ life cycle, thus can significantly aid product development concerning environmental impact reduction. Nevertheless, a progressive minimization of experiments and prototypes is a crucial challenge as it directly relies on the efficiency and quality of virtual methods and models. With the process of product development, product engineering turned its attention to product-related features. Moreover, the manufacturing process concept is needed since product properties and design influence manufacturing, and vice versa is accurate (Hurkamp et al,(2020).
  8. Practically, memory gets measured by Kilobytes or Megabytes. The following are the several types of memory units: bytes, Kilobytes, Megabytes, Gigabytes, Terabytes, Petabytes, Exabytes, Zettabytes, Yottabytes (Understanding file sizes | Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB – GeeksforGeeks, 2021)
  9. The computer Bus refers to a communication link utilized in the computer system for sending data, addressing, controlling signals and power of several computer system components. Buses are used in connecting several hardware components found in computer systems. , computer buses are wires of electronics that connect several hardware components within a computer system. It carries the data, manages signals, addresses memory and power supply to such features (Computer Bus | Functions Of Computer Bus, Address Bus, Control Bus, 2021).
  10. Information found on RAM involve running processes, executable file information, registry keys, network activity information, user login, cryptographic keys, passwords and even devices used, malware, hidden data and processes, temporary data, DLL, along with much more information. The importance of RAM data analysis is locating the data. Every data running, file copying or moving, usage of the network, deleting files or opening files on hard drives are recorded on RAM. The key difference between hard disk and RAM is that hard disk gives general information data while RAM records every single thing that takes place at a run-time along with uncertain conditions. This is critical as there is a vast amount of data never listed on hard disks like internet data. In addition, data stored within RAM is easy to alter as data can never be recovered after the computer is turned off, Umar et al,,(2018).

Exercise 2. Solid-state drives are currently replacing hard disk drives n several applications due to their merits regarding speed, size, and power consumption. However, the function of in-place overwrite is not enabled. Along with erasing operations need to precede new writes in solid-state drives as the inherent features of memory in a flash, which comprises SSDs. Moreover, erase operation is possible in block units for the block to have many invalid pages before the entire data block is deleted. To reclaim such wasted space of storage, valid pages from several blocks get copied to a new block, while the old block is started by the complete detector of content, a process called garbage collector, Chun et al,,(2021).


Bourgeois, D. and Bourgeois, D., 2021. Chapter 2: Hardware. [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 8 May 2021].

Chun, Y., Han, K., & Hong, Y. (2021). High-Performance Multi-Stream Management for SSDs. Electronics, 10(4), 486.

Definitions, C. and Hope, C., 2021. What is CPU (Central Processing Unit)?. [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 8 May 2021].

Encyclopedia Britannica. 2021. information system | Definition, Examples, & Facts. [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 8 May 2021].

Flamm, K. (2018). Measuring Moore’s law: evidence from price, cost, and quality indexes (No. w24553). National Bureau of Economic Research.

Hürkamp, A., Dér, A., Gellrich, S., Ossowski, T., Lorenz, R., Behrens, B. A., … & Thiede, S. (2020). Integrated computational product and production engineering for multi-material lightweight structures. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 110(9), 2551-2571.

Learn Computer Science. 2021. Computer Bus | Functions Of Computer Bus, Address Bus, Control Bus. [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 8 May 2021].

Musaddiq, A., Zikria, Y. B., Hahm, O., Yu, H., Bashir, A. K., & Kim, S. W. (2018). A survey on resource management in IoT operating systems. IEEE Access, 6, 8459-8482.

Reddy, S., Gautham, B. P., Das, P., Yeddula, R. R., Vale, S., & Malhotra, C. (2017). An ontological framework for integrated computational materials engineering. In Proceedings of the 4th world congress on integrated computational materials engineering (ICME 2017) (pp. 69-77). Springer, Cham.

Shi, Y., Chen, S., & Xu, X. (2017). MAGA: A mobility-aware computation offloading decision for distributed mobile cloud computing. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 5(1), 164-174.

Tanuska, P. and Skripcak, T., 2011. Data-Driven Scenario Test Generation for InformationSystems. International Journal of Computer Theory and Engineering, pp.565-572.

Umar, R., Yudhana, A., & Faiz, M. N. (2018). Experimental analysis of web browser sessions using live forensics method. Int. J. Electr. Comput. Eng, 8(5), 2951-2958.

Understanding file sizes | Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB – GeeksforGeeks. (2021). Retrieved 8 May 2021, from

Wheelus, C., & Zhu, X. (2020). IoT Network Security: Threats, Risks, and a Data-Driven Defense Framework. IoT, 1(2), 259-285.

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