High blood pressure and cardiovascular disease.



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The Rise of High Blood Pressure in the USA




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The Rise of High Blood Pressure in the USA


High blood pressure is the disorder of extreme blood pressure beyond the regular rate of pumping of blood while in contact with the arteries: which is the blood vessel mandated for the channelling of blood all over the body from the heart. Another name for the disorder is Hypertension. The rates and the force of blood flow are far from static, it is very dynamic, and the force of blood flow rises depending on the activity, time, gender, and many other phenomena. However, Hypertension results from the extreme heightening of the blood force from regular or standard rate ascribed health practitioners (Fuchs & Whelton, 2020). The extreme force of blood flow beyond the normal state may cause the damaging of an individual’s heart alongside resulting in many more dysfunction in the blood circulatory systems if the heightened pressure persists.

According to many pieces of research conducted by The Cardiologic Institution in America in collaboration with the Health ministry, they describe the disorder as any blood flow force exceeding 120/80 mm Hg. The severe form of the disease is blood pressure surpassing 140/90 mm Hg. The researcher highlights that the dysfunction is a major cause of various cardiac illnesses and stroke, which statistically is the number-one or notable cause of American mortality. Further research by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 2018 suggests that close to five-hundred thousand Americans succumbs for various reasons, with High blood pressure-related deaths being significant. The research highlights that close to 50% of mature American individuals suffer from dysfunction with mild blood pressure effects slightly beyond 120/80 mm Hg. Moreover, less than 25% of hypertension patients have a manageable condition of the disorder. In recent years, the prevalence of the diseases is high, with many cases unreported; models estimate that around 2025, the number of adults afflicted with the disease will rise to about 60%, with increased mortality rates (Muntner et al., 2018).

The leading cause for the rising number of Hypertension rates is the lifestyles amongst Americans, cognitive or mental disorders like stress, and nutritional related issues like excess uptake of salt and other environmental factors. Therefore, it is prudent for American citizens to undergo many checkups and medical attention to ascertain their health conditions and effectively manage the condition. This paper highlights the Ethical and societal factors resulting in the rapid growth of the disease’s causes and the effective mitigation of the situation. This paper will answer questions on the rules governing the problem, ethical issues that trigger how the medical society tackles the issue, ethical theories related to the issue, and how money, control, and power are linked to the problem and its treatment. The paper will also answer questions like the different cultural values that trigger the problem, how the problem is tackled in different cultural settings, the cultures affected by the illness, and the cultural traditions affecting the medication.

The disease is a lifestyle disease that afflicts individuals with varying lifestyles. According to some pieces of research concerning the disease, the majority of people suffering from the illness are the least in the socioeconomic status in America, with the majority being African-Americans. However, the disease is not limited to any socioeconomic category, and every person can get the disease. The annual cost for the treatment of the disease for the country is more than forty-eight billion dollars. The cost includes every therapeutic and psychological attentions. Despite the country’s expenditure on the care of the disease, the priority for the care is individual with higher social, economic status and power, who can afford the effective enhanced treatment, unlike the lower class individual who cannot afford treatments.

Ethical view of inquiry

About 50% of the American people are afflicted with Hypertensions, as suggested by the brand new policies and provisions by Health science and Medical field professions (Muntner et al., 2018).  The provisions from the policies highlight that people with blood flow rates exceeding 120/80 mm Hg have the conditions, therefore facilitating more Americans earmarked as Hypertension patients. The new standard is different from the classical standard for blood pressure disorder beyond 140/90 mm Hg. The new health policies imply the determination of around 15% of Americans as Hypertension patients. The significant effect for growing cases would be among youths. The researchers estimate the hypertension cases tripling for males below forty years of age and doubling females of the same age. The policies prompt medical practitioners to step in to cease the growing rate of the disorder in America.

Practical or ideal therapeutic trials contrasting the “disease management” therapy model lays out relative efficacy information for actualizing the medical operations as proof-anchored. Electronic databases for medical sectors information, enlisting, and affecting the therapeutic trials and tests may be costly. The classical research model is a subject of significant ethical concerns, which paralyzes the operations of the therapeutic interventions for the disease and is not efficient in accessing the progress of the trials and tests. The issue is due to the notion that these types of research resemble clinical operations or undertakings. Hence, they do not pose significant ethical concerns because of the extensiveness of research.

Although the proof-anchored High blood pressure care is beneficial in the mitigations against the disorder, some of the sick do not sufficiently abide by stipulated provisions and mitigations. Many worldwide or universal studies highlight high rates of unmanaged Hypertension conditions amongst Americans (Muntner et al., 2018). One model advancing the dysfunction’s management and care operations and effectively dealing with many dysfunction cases is the patient abiding with personal management traits. According to many pieces of research and analysis, the best-personalized therapeutic attention for the disease reduces the mild and severe conformation of the diseases by around 5 and 4.5 mm Hg of blood pressure. The personalized attention of the illness includes proper diets, reduced smoking, reduced consumption of alcohol, other beverages, incorporation of regularly scheduled exercises, usage of high blood pressure controlling drugs, controlling body weight, and many more interventions prescribed by the department of health.

The Health Belief theory is a fundamental paradigm that explains mitigation efforts for the disorder. The paradigm focuses much on the behavioural adjustments regarding the condition, which is an essential approach in the broader health sciences and medical field and is an effective therapeutic care model (Hosseinzadeh et al., 2019). The main facets of the theory are restraining elements (setup, ethical and demographic element) and personalized notions (supposed vulnerability, supposed acuteness, supposed advantage, presumed hurdles, instructions or operation, and personalized effectiveness) in the deciding possibility of revealing a trait. The paradigm describes an individual’s resolution and provocation to exhibit certain traits involves elements like presumed vulnerability and the acuteness and presumption of a practical therapeutic approach to mitigate the condition.

Societal view of inquiry

Along with other prominent cardiac dysfunctions, the condition affects the African-Americans group more than other social groups of American people. Hence, the reason for the high death rates of the disease by the African Americans. According to research, most African-Americans have an unmanageable form of the disease. The scientific studies further explain the abundance of hyperlipidemia proteins in this cultural group than others (Sherwood et al., 2017) do do do. The cultural and genetic differences highlight the proliferating death rates in their male adults and their abundance of heart conditions twice more than other cultural groupings.

The difference in infection rates between the African-Americans and other societal groupings is apparent, especially in the Southern regions of American, with most of the region’s states regarded as a hotspot for the condition. African-Americans estimated more than 20% of the population fundamentally inhabit the subject region. According to some pieces of research, the differences in heart viability and integrity link to the variation in race and regions, which highlights the prevalence of cardiac disorders. For example, limited income, low societal standings, reduced literacy levels, high rates of smoking, low exercise and overweight, and the limited acquisition of medical approach. The African-American community’s mentioned elements predominantly dictate the heightened rates of hyperlipidemia proteins that result in high blood pressure.

The significant impacts and effects of cultural variations in high blood pressure interventions are hypersensitive individuals’ views and confidence concerning wellness, which results in affected interactions in wellness traits. Statistical research further explains how the African-Americans’ notion and confidence affect their therapeutic and well-being and illustrates medical practitioners’ attempt to upgrade medical approach results for the cultural group. According to some statistical research centres primarily on the Southern region, black males with high blood pressure condition. The discrepancies in location and culture are complex or challenging due to uniqueness of setbacks or shortcomings facing the black American men with effects on the medical results like; chronic racial tensions, classical cultural under-reliance or unbelief in the medical sector, negative masculinity traits, and conflict between traditions and modernized therapeutic approaches.

The prominence of the disorder amongst black Americans is due to the lack of civic knowledge amongst this American group. Despite the culture knowing about the disorder, the cultural principles do not subscribe to the medical approach due to many societal views. It is also a matter of health concern the general universal societal perception of the disease as not severe during the mild stages and do not require therapeutic interventions. Studies reveal the heredity of the disease is due to the cultural lifestyle, diet, socialization and financial aspects, and other cultural profiles for the African-American culture (Zhou et al., 2019). The southern American nutrition plans and the food constituent highlight the susceptibility or risk for citizen’s inflictions with the disorder. Social and cultural factors like family, religion and other groups significantly affect the notion that African-Americans perceive the severity of the disease and the need for medical attention.


Hypertension disorder is a cardiac disorder that results in increased force of blood flow through the arteries. The disorder is prevalent in older American people, especially amongst African-American people. There are many policies earmarked in tackling health issues; however, the undertakings of the policies are hindered by some important morals or values of the Americans. One of the main factors for the constant increase in the rates of infections is the cultural practices by various American societies, alongside the socioeconomic profiles of the culture. Therefore, it is evident that the Southern regions’ cultural practices influence their prevalence of the disease. The cultural beliefs also affect their perception of medical attention as a method of mitigations. In answering the research question, the paper highlights the influence of societal groups and beliefs on heightened infection and morbidity rates. The discrepancies in the socioeconomic status of Americans affect their relationship and treatment for the disease.  It is prudent for the country to increase civic education for everyone about the disease and the effective and safe mechanisms of dealing with the dysfunction.





















Fuchs, F. D., & Whelton, P. K. (2020). High blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Hypertension75(2), 285-292.

Hosseinzadeh, M., Mahdavi, N., Valizadeh, S., Fooladi, M. M., Rahmani, F., Ghanouni, F., & Aghajari, P. (2019). Self-care behavior and self-care agency in lowering salt consumption in hypertensive older patients based on orem’s self-care theory. Social Health and Behavior2(3), 89.

Muntner, P., Carey, R. M., Gidding, S., Jones, D. W., Taler, S. J., Wright Jr, J. T., & Whelton, P. K. (2018). Potential US population impact of the 2017 ACC/AHA high blood pressure guideline. Circulation137(2), 109-118.

Sherwood, A., Hill, L. K., Blumenthal, J. A., Johnson, K. S., & Hinderliter, A. L. (2017). Race and sex differences in cardiovascular α-adrenergic and β-adrenergic receptor responsiveness in men and women with high blood pressure. Journal of Hypertension35(5), 975.

Zhou, B., Danaei, G., Stevens, G. A., Bixby, H., Taddei, C., Carrillo-Larco, R. M., & Ezzati, M. (2019). Long-term and recent trends in hypertension awareness, treatment, and control in 12 high-income countries: an analysis of 123 nationally representative surveys. The Lancet394(10199), 639-651.

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