Health and Psychological Issues


Health and Psychological Issues

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Mental health comprises emotional, psychological, and physical well-being and affects the thinking criteria of the people. Generally, the global statistics showed that approximately 10.7% suffered mental health problems (Sun and Wang, 2015, p. 2361).  People suffering from mental health are discriminated against in society and may not get proper care as expected. Stigmatization among mentally challenged people prompts them to avoid accessing help from a specialist. Psychological factors such as stigma, fear, denial, stress, hostility, depression, and hopelessness are highly correlated with physical health. Stigma is the perception of people towards others that makes them feel isolated because they are treated differently. Individuals may not attend clinics in fear of being isolated due to their conditions.  Fear hinders people from seeking medical services.

Some people do not like taking drugs, and they fear going to healthcare in fear of taking drugs. They also fear being admitted to the hospital and changing their diet as well. Denial is the refusal to recognize the presence of reality. It can make patients delay treatment in cases where they do not believe that they are sick and avoid taking their drugs. Embarrassment in healthcare may hinder patients from exposing their condition to the doctor, but the doctor may let them know that the information is confidential and very safe. Illness results in persistent fear and worries on the patient and impacts the patient’s psychological health. The disease has long-term effects on the patient base in the hospital, and medical procedures are followed for treatment. Infection is associated with persistent sadness, anger, irritability, and excessive moodiness; the factors facilitate the psychological strength of the patient and may easily prolong the illness. Illness promotes hopelessness, loss of dignity due to constant pain and may easily promote psychological condition. Generally, psychological problems are promoted through disease among the patients. The patients greatly suffer from self-guided traumatization and self-view due to the state pin on their health status. The various health status of the patients promotes great feelings and frustrations among the patients. Generally, several theories provide guidelines on how to aid ill-affected people in solving psychological problems. The views provide a clear route followed by various people and how impactful the program was in the past. Besides, the opinions are crucial in reducing the psychological problems associated with illness and frustrations related to the disease.

Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs theory is a primary motivational theory that provides the basis for solving any psychological-based problem (Gu et al., 2019, p. 781). Marjory is affected by psychological issues such as hopelessness and loss of dignity resulting from constant pain associated with illness.  The theory is based on the five-tier model of human needs and analysis the psychological problems based on the urgency of the issues. Generally, the requirements presented in the lower side of the pyramid are satisfied first before extending the solution to the higher up needs (McLeod, 2007. The conditions based on the pyramid include; psychological needs, safety needs, love and belonging, esteem, and self-actualization (McLeod, 2007, p.1). The basic needs involved in the theory are critical in supporting self-acceptance, intimacy, and trust (Gu et al., 2015, p. 45).  Based on Marjory’s case, it is evident that Maslow’s theory is essential to use since it directly impacts her life. The hierarchy of needs theory is also extended to cover the cognitive and aesthetic needs and projected to satisfy the transcendence needs (McLeod, 2007, p.6). This theory calls for the establishment of good health care founded on needs.  It is these needs that initiate clinicians and other health practitioners to offer appropriate health care services.

Psychodynamic theory is a critical theory on relational focus and self-psychology. The theory generally promotes the relational paradigm on the psychologically affected people. The theory is essential to promoting the professional desires on how to model the best ways to aid the psychologically affected people (Cummins, 2010, p.4). The psychological theory exposes the interpersonal patterns that are not understandable by the patients to promote their psychological strength (Deal, 2007, p.1). Initially, the theory was used to determine human behavior and solve the aggressive motives (Deal, 2007, p.2). The theory is essential in exposing the gravitational constraints associated with ill people who suffer from psychological problems. The case of Marjory is based on the concept of self-drive, which can easily be solved through the psychodynamic theory, which promotes the process of healing through analysis of personal behavior (Deal, 2007, p.2). The theory will be critical for the clinical officers to analyze the behavior associated with illness.  Marjory suffers from undefined issues such as psychological weakness resulting from pain. There is a great need to incorporate the thought related to the theory to aid Marjory in gaining hope in life. This theory calls for the veneration of patients, genuineness and confidentiality, and the search for relaxing aims to form the morals of treatment aiming to obligate the truth.

Marjory suffers from hopelessness which is closely associated with her desire to isolate besides being a promoter of powerlessness. Marjory’s case of distress is associated with health concerns associated. (Wang et al., 2018, p. 3). Based on a study conducted on the people’s effects of psychiatric disorder, the study showed that hopelessness is closely associated with depression (Kibe, p.1). Many health problems are upsetting and bring about difficult emotions in the patients. Most of the patients fear and worry about their future, and the illness promotes emotional issues. Marjory has excellent worries about the sickness, and the sickness has prompted hopelessness in her life. Besides, the pain associated with the knee promotes Marjory’s feeling that she might not cope with a situation that is promoting distress in the life of Marjory.

The illness has affected the dignity of Marjory. Marjory has lost self-respect based on the pain she suffers. The blood infection reduced the appetite, and Marjory was not able to move. The reduced appetite resulted in psychological problems forcing her to lose all her dignity in life.  (Cummins, 2010, p.4). Low self-respect promotes self-hate, and Marjory suffered from self-hate due to the consistency of the disease. The quiet dignity associated with Marjory lowered the respect she had over her life and the life she had lived, and the ideology triggered hopelessness in her life.

A study conducted to investigate the experiences associated with mental problems through Maslow’s hierarchy as a theoretical foundation showed that self-actualization is associated with fulfilling basic needs (Gu et al., 2018, p. 1924). Based on Marjory’s case, the health professionals should ensure that the basic needs of Marjory are satisfied to ensure hopelessness is eliminated in her mind.  Generally, the depression-associated problem requires excellent consideration of a recovery-oriented system based on person-centered care planning ideology (Matarose-Molehe, 2013, p.1). The professional techniques expected to solve Marjory’s case should follow Maslow’s hierarchy of needs that places the requirements in a pyramid of urgency. The recovery program for Marjory will require a proper analysis of the self-actualization of her.

The healthcare professionals generally use the psychodynamic theory to promote the relationship between the professionals and Marjory. The idea will be fundamental in identifying the paradigms expected for the treatment and recovery of Marjory.  The theory encourages the essence of self-actualization and healthy behaviors among the patients; the idea will be detrimental in making the treatment process of Marjory. Generally, Marjory requires proper treatment procedures to ensure a recovery process is achieved (Bornstein et al., 2018, p.3). Based on the psychodynamic theory, it is essential to analyze all the life events to gain the basis of a psychological problem since childhood issues significantly impact the future life of everybody (Bornstein et al., 2018, p.3). The healthcare professionals will use the psychodynamic theory to identify the behavior and personality of Marjory to scrutinize the possible measures to aid in the healing process. Generally, the theory suggests that the unconscious mind is the leading cause of psychological distress and dysfunction among many people (Bornstein et al., 2018, p.3).

Maslow’s theory is criticized because the model is too simplistic, and the same product or service can satisfy several needs at once (Zheng et al., 2016, p. 2). Besides, the model is unethical since it has less empirical support for the rank ordering of the needs (Mofti and Vasudevan 2020, p.5). In the case study provided, the theory might not identify the proper order of the mental problems associated with Marjory, and thus, mere psychoanalysis might be accessed (Sridharan, 2014, p.3). Also, the model is too culture-bound since it lacks essential support across different cultures, and the assumptions of the hierarchy may be restricted to some countries.

The greatest weakness of the psychodynamic theory is based on the fact that the idea is affected by the unscientific analysis of human behavior.  The psychodynamic approach is greatly affected by the ethical issues involving autonomy, coercion, consent, boundaries, and involuntary commitment. In the cases of Marjory, the idea might be invalid if Marjory is not willing to present her behavioral perspective and the psychological problems she suffered while young (Castelo-Branco and Several, 2014, p.17). The psychodynamic theory is very effective in treatment for significant depression, typically on long-run focus. Generally, according to object relations theory, depression is closely associated with relationships. The psychodynamic theory suggests that depression is related to biological factors, and thus, any health professional officer should consider addressing the biological factors before treating a psychologically affected person.


Diagnosis of a patient with mental disorders such as depression is associated with various ethical aspects such as rights of the patient, equity of resources, and confidentiality of the information, patients’ interests, and conflict of interest (Denice et al., 2015, p.137). Ethics are critical to maintaining, although the patients suffer significant problems associated with ethics due to societal issues (Denecke et al., 2015, p.137). The healthcare system generally is affected by legal recognition barriers that distract the affected people.

Psychodynamic therapy involves interpreting mental and emotional processes instead of focusing on behavior (Cummins, 2010, p.4). The psychodynamic therapists focus on finding the patterns involved in the patients’ emotions, thoughts, and beliefs to gain insight into the situation of the patients. The psychodynamic counseling aid the patients in creating awareness of their past and the impacts associated with the past relations related to the patients (Gu et al., 2016, p. 3). In 1961, Neal Miller used behavioral measures to assess the motivational disposition in rodents and found that avoidance was associated with phobia and depression among the rodents. Besides, the study identified that behavior was the central ideology behind the assessment of psychological problems.

Conclusively, psychological status is greatly affected by the health status of the patient. Based on the case presented, Marjory suffered the problem of hopelessness and low dignity. The issues are easily analyzed through Maslow’s theory and psychodynamic theories, which provide the basis for analyzing psychological issues. Based on Maslow’s view, the solution to related psychological problems is provided based on the pyramidal urgency of the factors. The answers are provided first for the bottom-most elements proceeding upwards. Besides, the psychodynamic theory utilizes past behavioral analysis to identify the root of any psychological problem.





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