Functional magnetic resonance imaging study

Do playing video games with violent content temporarily increase aggressive inclination?

The rising debate among social scientists concerning the effects of playing video games has led to the development of various studies on the topic. The conclusion statement made by the studies was supported by other articles, while others disagreed, stating that the aggressiveness is not real. However, the current research focuses on straightforwardly testing the hypothesis that aggressive levels of the participants who played the violent video games with those who played nonviolent video games because there is a connection between the two as depicted by meta-analysis of different studies. It had a goal of determining whether there was an actual relationship between the aggressive levels and the exposure to violent video games.  The research has randomly selected 386 participants who had the skill of playing video games and divided them into two groups. The first group was subjected to play VVGs and the other group played NVGs. Later, the aggressive inclination of each group was measured by use of voodoo doll as an interaction partner of each individual in every group. They all had to state the number of pins they would like to stick in to the doll and state the likelihood of causing harm to the interaction partner (doll).

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Mild provocation of participants during the interaction was used to measure their aggressive levels. The feedback of each MTurk raters was used in drawing the average response of each participant in each group. The result however showed that there were no discrepancies between two groups in aggression levels upon interaction. Moreover, there were similarities in findings of participant’s usage of pin and intent to harm. The Bayes factors concluded that data were under null hypothesis than the default alternative hypothesis. The findings however, rejected the hypothesis of the study that a violent video game would hike the aggressive levels of the participants. Despite the use of straightforward methods, analytic measure and greater statistical powered the study had various limitations as well as strengths. The exploratory analyses proved the limitation of the study since there was relationship between gender and high levels of pin selection, gamer identity of a participant and lower levels of pins selection, and participants aggressiveness and the perception of the game being frustrating and hard. The current study has immensely contributed to research on effects of VVGs on aggression levels. The study also has an implication on the future research studies in the area for instance, when does VVGs cause aggression.

A preregistered longitudinal analysis of aggressive video games and aggressive behavior in Chinese youth

The past longitudinal studies have shown the relationship between the aggressive video games and the aggression levels among the youths. The current study is however adding the information to topic by examining and analyzing the existing longitudinal links between the AVGs and the aggressiveness among the larger sample of Chinese youths. Due to the mixed results by various studies on the topic, the study is using the preregistered method of analyses in determining the true relationship between the two. Other variables being controlled the study was guided by the research question whether the AVGs had a role to play in later cause of aggression among Chinese youths. Total participants were 1340 of which 45.1% were male and the rest were female. The research questions were administered to all Chinese classes. AVGs and aggression behavior data were collected through self-reports of each participant in both periods (T1 and T2). Aggressive behavior was measured by a 12 item trait   called Brief Aggression Questionnaire for self-reported and 6 item for peer-reported. Each recorded the internal consistency of 68, 78 for T1 and 71, 76 for T2 which was then averaged. The AVGs data was collected by participant stating the top three games, frequency of playing and the violence level of each game.

The regression model was significant (R=460) and the error of multicollinearity was not detected with (VIF=1.45) being the highest. The AVG exposure coefficient was .027 with P-value being .410 proved that it was not a significant predictor for the case of T2 aggression. Despite use of various alternate data with no preregistration and analyses method showed that there was no effect in the results found. For, instance, assuming the T1 moral disengagement variable had no effect on the results. The results of the study showed that the AVGs had no effect on the youth aggression thus nullifying the default alternate hypothesis. However, aggressiveness and moral disengagement proved to be the factor that affects the aggression. The study had weaknesses like, the use of self-reports of violent content of games played among the youths for AVG measure. The limited past studies resulted in study to have less impact on the final results. Some of the variables like genes had a create role to play in aggression but it was not considered. Despite the preregistration of methods, scholars in the past had collected same data and it produced same results. It is predicted that, future research shall be more done on the topic and the article plays a role in supporting the hypothesis where AVGs do not link with youth aggression.

Does playing of violent video games induces aggression,

The ongoing debate of the relationship between the media and the behaviors of individuals is tightening up. The study is however, aiming at advancing this kind of debate especially the effects of the violent video games. The meta-analyses have depicted a small noticeable link between playing of violent video games and the aggression reactions. The novel, functional magnetic resonance imaging study has involved thirteen male participants who were playing a latest generation violent video game. They all fall on the age between 18 and 26 and had magnetic resonance. They were all right handedness and they played a 5hr game per week. The game of every individual was recorded both video and audio and then its content was analyzed by use of frame to frame basis. The brain activity and psychological conditions like heart rate were measure throughout the game. Various codes like passive, active dead were given to onscreen activities. With regard to previous studies on neuroscience and cognitive areas, it has been proven that violent video game helps in suppressing the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and amygdala. The study however helps to draw the link of virtual violent video and aggression on communism and neurological level. The study found that the 11 participants confirmed the hypothesis while the others negate it.

Most participants enjoyed playing the game and they could do so in normal environment. The research hypothesis of the study focuses on two aspects; the relation between virtual violent game and the brain activity and the causal of the relationship between the two. Since it was a time series variables for ACC and amygdala, both aspects were tested via cross correlation analyses rather than SPM. The study showed that the amygdala and r-ACC depicted negative relation while only d-ACC showed positive relation with the exposure to virtual violence game indicating their down- regulation and up-regulation respectively. However, the effects observed delayed by six seconds due to hemodynamic related to fMRI. 11 participants exhibited stable cross correlations with +0.17 (d-ACC), -0.13 (r-ACC), and -0.14 for amygdala. One of individuals showed a higher cross correlation with exposure to violent video games. The remaining two showed a negative cross correlation. The sense of pretense is not fully shown by the article due to high level of awareness concerning the fictional game affects the neural activity than it was expected. The subjective measures used can result in lack validation. The strength of the study is determination of the link between brain activity and violent virtual video. This was described by the cross correlation consistencies and exclusivity of responses.

A longitudinal study of association between violent video game and aggression among adolescent

In the recent past studies, they have shown the relationship between the violent video game play and the aggression. The limited empirical study on the topic is limited and the current study is focusing on the sustained relationship between the violence video games with the aggressive behaviors among the adolescent through the long term association between the two factors. The study was guided by the hypothesis that violent video game predicts the aggression overtime among the adolescents and vice versa. Because playing of video games is common to adolescent, the study focused on 1432 adolescents of which 49.2% were male. These individuals were surveyed yearly from 9th grade to 12th grade, with the goal of determining the association of violent video games and the aggressive character. Single item quiz was used to collect gender of individual and the number of computers at home. The direct aggression was determined in each time period by use of composite scales where the higher composites inferred higher aggression frequency. The violent video game play was assessed by asking the type of the game (action or fight) and a composite scale was used. Higher score indicated high frequency of playing VVGs. Nonviolent video game was assessed by asking the participant if they play puzzle, house modelling etc. composite scale was used where high score indicated high NVGs rate.

The results of the study showed that boys are more frequently playing violent video play and aggression while girls on the other hand depicted higher frequencies in participation of nonviolent video games. The analyses showed that adolescents who continually played the violent video game throughout the high school exhibited high chances of aggression as compared to those individuals with less sustained game play. Despite holding several variables like NVGs, gender, parental education, number of computers at home etc. the findings were still significant and even expanded the initial the two-year evidence of the relation. The coefficients of the variables were low than 0.20 implying that there is a small effect, thus the study is consistent with the other past longitudinal studies. Second and third analyses depicted that playing of violent video game has a higher levels of aggression. The combination of the three analyses infer a firm support to the hypothesis, violent video game play results in increase of aggressive behavior over a period of time. Limitation of the study came from relying on self-report and it was not clear if anyone other than adolescents can provide accurate information. The study also generalizes the adolescents since past 20, the brain would have developed thus the hypothesis shall be rejected. Further research shall benefit from the data collected by the study and the inferences made.

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