Enlivening Philosophies in Philippine Education


Critique Paper: Enlivening Philosophies in Philippine Education

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Like most Asian countries, in the Philippines, philosophy in education is taught as one of the general introductory courses in universities and colleges.       As usually, philosophy education focuses on filed such as logic, ethics, and philosophy of man. In a recent development, the government introduces philosophy in K to 12 programs that mean the course will be taught in senior high school. Teachers and scholars have argued that philosophy principles and theories play an important aspect in human life. Hence, it must be put into practice. Educational philosophies or philosophies, in general, are identified as to teach you to pass from a piece of disguised nonsense to something that is patent nonsense.  Philosophy by nature is a pearl of disguised but beautiful wisdom that is sometimes identified as nonsense. The majority are limited in simply identifying them but practicing them in teaching, learning, and skills development is highly questionable.

Nonetheless, this paper tried to critique an article on the philosophy of education in the Philippines. The selected article is titled “Enlivening Philosophies in Philippine Education” The report provides an in-depth analysis of philosophies development in the Philippines after the colonial period and its importance to the education system. The philosophies have played an essential role in uniting the countries under common national unity influenced by the western conceptions of patriotism and personhood.

The islands are collectively known as the Philippines; however, they are home to nearly 200 distinct ethnolinguistic groups. The imposition of a universal national identity upon such a diverse populace entails the erasure of identities, knowledge systems, practices, and ways of life that differ from state-imposed norms. Education is a critical site for this subjugation of difference, as evidenced by the state’s imposition of a national curriculum. Yet, the national curriculum not only serves to submerge difference, as decolonizing pedagogies and philosophies of education in the Philippines often arise out of collective resistance to the marginalizing aspects of schooling in the region. The philosophies of education in the Philippines are, as such, situated within the historical tensions between the national curriculum, the central government’s economic and political agendas, collective calls for human rights, and the philosophies, practices, and knowledge systems of Indigenous peoples.  The article analyzes the philosophies that were created to entrenched the independence of the newly formed states.

Furthermore, the United States’ presence had violated, dehumanized, and increased inequality in relations to rooted colonial domination. It has been evidenced in the past contemporary Philippines economic, social, and politics.  Although the Country no longer subscribes too much to Spanish or United States international policies, particularly in education. Additionally, the article looks into the present character of educational philosophies to relate the status quo and its influence on the Filipino education system. After a series of literature reviews, the article concludes that both students and teachers should test to determine their emerging and prevailing educational philosophy. It will significantly affect the latest k to 12 curriculums that encourage a holistic approach. The article highlighted vital philosophical skills and disciplines. Gepila (2017) argued that educational philosophies should solve pressing issues on disciplines, standards, and skills in human life. These three principles give philosophical education the needed room for the centrality of both students and teacher thinking on education. Gepila (2017) believes that philosophy in Philippines education should help the stakeholders to draw the knowledge under the distinctive philosophical perspectives/ theories.

From the start, the researcher seems to experience the exactness, practice, and efficiency of educational philosophies. The article is somewhat confusing at the beginning of the abstract. Gepila (2017) starts by using explicit ethics, and it gives recommendations with little understanding of the research method and results of the research. Though the researcher acknowledges educational philosophies are a masterpiece in human life, it seems not to justify if the philosophy is nurture or nature increasing the needed knowledge and standard and skills. Importantly, education is considered to grow through goal-identification, engagement, and solving problems.  According to Marquez (2017), Filipino education should focus on a brighter ignorance of the world of artifacts we inhabit. Also, the article seems to focus on the emerging issue based on John Dewey, who knew very well the American education, which significantly differs from the Philippines education.

Furthermore, although it is a short article, Gepila (2017) should have provided better literature analysis to glimpse philosophy education in the Philippines to readers. Assessment of current research topic should be the most apparent value the previously written research works. The researcher determined which areas to be highlighted and their relevance to the researched topic. With little literature review, the article seems to have very little background information.  The literature review helps to build extensive knowledge about the subject. It is because prior knowledge helps the researcher show expertise in the area and the available ability. Developing and owning an educational philosophy is influential in directing and guiding teachers in executing their teaching practices and, most notably, how they look at their learners to whom they deliver their effort. With little literature review, the author did not seemly defend and defined the research aims subjectively.

Additionally, an extensive literature review could have given the paper the needed new angles in exploring the topic. For instance, provide extensive literature on Filipino education since postcolonial should have address in-depth need to study the subject. Notably, the contemporary pedagogical reactions to repressive power concerning philosophy education are the foundation for future thinking in the face of a more dynamic learning and teaching environment.  It could have better study’s ideas and analyzed aspects of the Filipino’s philosophy education. The question that the research tries to answer should have been documented from the identified studies and literature. Significantly, an in-depth literature review could help readers to contextualized the Filipino education settings.

Like any academic works, research methodology is essential in collecting and analyzing data that helps to reach the objectives. Therefore, every researcher needs to consider the best approach to collect the data. For the case of this article, Gepila (2017) considers the qualitative approach as the best option. The researcher argued that qualitative will takes into account reports, journals, and documentaries in determining the influence and enlivening the diverse philosophies in the Philippine education system. Though the approach is similar to the systematic literature review, pointing only the written data limits the research results. For objective research, mixed methods provide a significant result that advances the qualitative and quantitative data. The mixed helps the study compares the finding from the two ways. The evaluators can construct several different and similar conclusions from the bot types of data. The analysis of both data and comparing the results through the several procedures such as side-by-side comparison discussion and using the qualitative, pure descriptive in terms of the view of the point of the research in the application an objective respectively.

Additionally, ignoring the quantitative approach limits the analysis of quantifying the results into something understandable.  The qualitative didn’t help the research to come up with essential data. Instead, it helped to better understand individuals’ personal experiences from various previous work on the philosophies of education in the Philippines.  Additionally, in my opinion, the use of the quantitative approach would have provided more insights into the Enlivening Philosophies in Philippine Education.

Furthermore, the research results seem to point to various themes without significant data. The research results show that there are several emerging issues surrounding philosophy teaching in the Philippines.  Notably, Gepila (2017) argued that essential is essential in the world. The Philippines, as a founding member of the world’s largest economy, is now being challenged by integration of the philosophical education—the free movement of capital with its most capability and potentials, among many others. Thus, in particular, the Philippines is toward achieving twenty-first-century competencies such as civic literacy, global awareness, cross-cultural skills; critical and inventive thinking skills; and information communication skills. The mentioned competencies encompass the philosophy of education. Hence, a holistic approach to educational philosophy is underpinned. The research seems not to point any better or new ideas about philosophical education in the Philippines. Though it looks unsure, the research organization and framework experiences express the underdeveloped knowledge from learners rather than explain the enlivening of philosophies in Filipino education.

Throughout the analysis, the research emphasizes the perspectives that complete learning should be conducted across the Country. This idea is pointed to an empiricist point of view with little quantified data to support the idea.  Any academic research should provide in-depth analysis that influences self-expression and self-actualization through abstraction and thought are to be at the service. Instead, education should underpin innate biological, cognitive or human potential towards a definite and final end goal (Cruz, Madden, & Asante,2018). It processes development, conditions that are favorable to the learner to stretch his full potential. The Gepila perspectives seem to lack reliability and accuracy from the results and experiences from reflection on the previous work. Instead, the research should enhance better development of the curriculum and writing instructional materials.  The research must support and justify the very character of educational philosophy in every classroom and its teaches for better lesson delivery and enjoyable situations. Therefore, Gepila’s argument does not develop the needed critical thinking in developing fine acknowledge and skills that every learner. Though The K to 12 curriculums is more than enough to make the Philippine human capital great again in terms of its capabilities and potentials, its workforce turned to become competitive in the curriculum in the international market. A 10-year education curriculum was the Country’s human capital’s gradual growth in various industries.

Additionally, one fact that stands out from the article the fundamental and universal ideas can still exist if their scope will be limited to a nation, the Philippines.  For instance, the love of freedom cannot be seen within the article illustration of the Philippines education history. The analysis of the Filipino education history, current affairs, and political accomplishment shows how the regressive state progressed in the Philippines. Notably, the Filipinos have thriving social values and beliefs that helped to establish the crisis.  The effort has strengthened the education system of the Philippines, primarily through the rise of student activism. The teaching of the philosophy in first grade to the senior high school is a progressive approach and has helped to face the 21st century economic, social-political and moral crisis.

In conclusion, as usual, philosophy education focuses on filed such as logic, ethics, and philosophy of man. In a recent development, the government introduces philosophy in K to 12 programs that mean the course will be taught in senior high school. Teachers and scholars have argued that philosophy principles and theories play an essential aspect in human life. Nonetheless, this paper tried to critique an article on the philosophy of education in the Philippines. The selected article is titled “Enlivening Philosophies in Philippine Education” The report provides an in-depth analysis of philosophies development in the Philippines after the colonial period and its importance to the education system. The mixed helps the research compares the finding from the two methods. The evaluators can construct several different and similar conclusions from the bot types of data. The analysis of both data and comparing the results through the several procedures such as side-by-side comparison discussion and using the qualitative, pure descriptive in terms of the view of the point of the research in the application an objective respectively. The philosophies have played an essential role in uniting the countries under common national unity influenced by the western conceptions of patriotism and personhood.



Gepila Jr, E. C. (2017). Enlivening Philosophies in Philippine Education. Transylvanian Review, (13).

Marquez, L. (2017). Philosophy in primary education: Towards the strengthening of the foundations of Philippine education. Policy Futures in Education, 1478210317743650.

Cruz, A. V., Madden, P. E., & Asante, C. K. (2018). Toward cross-cultural curriculum development: An analysis of science education in the Philippines, Ghana, and the United States. In Intercultural studies of curriculum (pp. 37-57). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

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