Discussion on the types of evidence


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Question One




  1. Anecdotal evidence – anecdotal evidence entails factual claims dependent only on personal observation, collected either through a casual or a non-systematic way. It has been used in making assertions in various ideas in these debatable assertions. A debate concerning argument on genetically modified foods leads to human health risks. There is an experiment performed on rats; rats whose mother was fed GMOs died after three weeks. An observation was made that this rate had damages to her uterus and ovaries, leading to infertility. This kind of evidence supports the notion that genetically modified foods lead to human health risks.


  1. Observational evidence- Observational evidence is often applied when randomized controlled trials are infeasible. Using similar experiments to prove that genetically modified organisms lead to human health risks, observational evidence is involved through observation impact of the rat whose mother was fed GMOs.


  1. Correlational evidence- two ideas or concepts correlates if they tend to vary together so that the more there is one, the more or less there is the other. An illustration is brought out; offshore drilling releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere and has a high risk for oil spills. This has a resulting impact because it tends to pose a threat to wildlife and coastal regions. There exists a correlation between an increased amount of oil production and more substantial biological changes.


  1. Experimental evidence- entails observations emanating under controlled conditions rather than making assertions through empirical research methods. Instead of asserting that genetically modified organizations impact human health by relying on empirical research, evidence is presented based on an experiment conducted on a rat to make inferences based on results obtained from the investigation. It brings more weight to assertions being made rather than over-reliance on documented evidence.














Question Two



Climate change can interfere or change the geographical ranges of infectious diseases, and it can establish extreme weather patterns which have resulting impacts on human beings. Here are two examples of supporting ecosystem services that might be impacted by the change in climate, which potentially results in increased diseases and various harmful human effects.


  1. Soil formation – humans often do not directly use this as a service, but changes in school formation have an indirect impact on people. It can be seen in the provisioning service of the production of food. This can be understood in this manner, if there exists a change in school formation, for instance, based on change of school from acidic to basic on soil in which crops does well in acidic soil, it will mean that if crops are planted on such a soil which is now acidic because of climate change, human being will be affected indirectly because they will not be able to cultivate and harvest well on such soil. Therefore change in soil formation resulting from climate change directly impact human beings.
  2. Production of atmospheric oxygen resulting from photosynthesis has often be regarded as a supporting service since oxygen forms the basis for animal survival on earth. Therefore a change in production of atmospheric oxygen resulting from climate change has adverse life effect on human beings. Human tend to depend heavily on oxygen, and it is a fundamental competent for their survival. If the supply of oxygen changes, it risks causing death to human being. Some of the activities that might led to changes in oxygen supply is deforestation. Oxygen emanates from plants and they are cut down, supply of oxygen might be affected or in an environment which is desert. Therefore, it is true that a change in climate has an impact, either directly or indirectly on human being.




Question Three


           Offshore drilling has the tendency of releasing gases into the atmosphere. It has a high risk for oil spills which poses a risk or threat to wildlife and coastal areas. Air and water pollution has been regarded to pose risks on human’s life. The health risks from oil and extraction of gas have not been limited to air pollution. The drilling method applied in this process has an effect on water sources. It causes contamination on drinking water sources with chemicals which causes cancer, birth interference and liver damage. These are just but a few risks posed by offshore drilling.

Untreated chemicals released on the environment causes adverse impact of living things. For instance, if the chemicals used for oil drilling are released on water, it will affect water living animals such as fish and might cause their death. Supported by evidence from debate, two species of fish were studied, specifically, haddock and Atlantic cod, in two locations where there was a critical oil production. On one location, it was discovered that about one to eleven tons of oil per day was released, while the other seemingly released one to four tons per day. In the process of the study, several biological impacts were observed which include, genotoxicity, a modified composition of fatty acid. From the study or experience, it is evident that offshore drilling releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere and risks the life of seas living animals.



Oil drilling also poses risks to people living within such territory. When chemicals are released in water, those that consume it are at risk of being infected by other diseases, which might led to deadly diseases such as cancer. Therefore offshore drilling is harmful to living organisms with such areas.






Question Four



GMOs impact genetic diversity as a result of uncontrolled growth of a population genetically engineered. If genes which are advantageous are introduced into GMOs, it permits them to be more fit than their wild relatives. Such a situation remain detrimental since GMOs would grow much faster and reproduce more often. This allows them to take resources away from relatives regarded as non-GMO if they occupy a similar environment or same inhabitant. Genetic modification exhibit genetically modified animals, plants and organisms. If they are released on the environment, the resulting effect would be on biodiversity. For instance, species which are already existing can be overrun by more dominant new species within similar environment or surrounding. Through in order to assess the effect of biodiversity, knowledge is required. GE crops which are paired with their pesticide has resulting impact through counterparts wreak on the environment through, intensified application of herbicide and increase of herbicide-resistant weed. Growing of more GMO crops assist towards goal of preserving half earth for biodiversity. GM crops has a net positive effect on biodiversity and its impact on sustainability over the past fifteen years have been discovered through increasing yield, deduction of insecticide application, and existence of increased application of environmental friendly herbicides and enhancing adoption of more environmentally friendly herbicides serves as one of ways through which GMO crops preserves biodiversity. Genetic modification establishes genetically modified animals, plants, and organisms. More specifically, commercialized genetically modified crops have minimized effects of agriculture on biodiversity, through enhanced adoption of tillage conservation. Application of environmentally friendly chemicals preserves the environment from adverse impacts on living organisms. It is therefore evident that the application of genetically modified crops preserve biodiversity.









Question Five


If an act causes or raises threat of harm to human health through cause of diseases and other adverse effects, environment precautionary measures ought to taken even if certain cause and impact relationships are not fully established scientifically. Therefore, the precautionary principle gives recognition that delaying actions until there exists a compelling prove of harm will often mean that it is impossible to avert the situation or serious risks in existence. Therefore, precautionary principle gives an assertion that burden of proof for existence of a potentially harmful actions by an industry or government rests on the assurance of safety, and that where there exists threats of existing damage, it ought to be controlled. It is therefore critical for precautionary principle to guide policy decisions regulating the use of hormone mimics.  Essential purpose of regulations is based on the fact that, it controls use of harmful hormones which risks lives of people within a specific geographical area.

There exists an argument that DDT should be banned as it has negative impacts on the reproductive systems of both human males and females. These effects it has on both male and female forms the basis for need to be banned. The study assembles a cohort of malaria control employee who had been employed to work for at least a year to assess potential health impacts of occupational paternal DDT exposure on birth defects. During the assessment, years of exposure to DDT was measured, and pregnancies were evaluated in the study. Sixty two children came out with existing defects out of seventy five of children whose parents were exposed to DDT. From the study, it was evident that women who are exposed to DDT at a higher level are more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer as adults. DDT has an effect on how other hormones with the body act and the resulting effect is always adverse. It therefore crucial to ban it.













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