Discussion on Technology in Organizations


TECHNOLOGY IN ORGANISATIONS                                                                                                  1

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Question 1 Identify and discuss in detail Big Data and its role in Arden University. Provide examples of any two departments.

Big data have become more significant over the past few years. It is experiencing an escalating level of influence. It plays a role in almost everything that encompasses a human life. Its applicability has been viewed in health care systems, Netflix recommendations, and the higher institution of learning.  Big data plays a significant role in higher education, as this paper will discuss given attention to Arden University.

Being one of the fastest-growing universities in the United Kingdom, the University aims to achieve a competitive strategy and Big data. The school is making significant strides to be backed up with databases to increase its efficaciousness when it comes to production capabilities (Yu and WU pp 104). Some events, such as entering a new market in Germany, require the University to be precarious with its operation. Below are the roles that Big data plays in the Arden university.

Big data plays a pivotal role in increasing student performance. It does so through changing the perspective and even offering personalized learning experiences. With the novel coronavirus, Arden University have is trying to transit from traditional learning to online studies. It is no longer common to find students carrying physical learning materials since they can use them to log in to the Arden university library and access the learning material of their choice. This has been backed by the Babson survey group that outlined a higher likelihood of a student being involved in at least one learning distance course in their academic careers. Arden universities have designed some systems that students can learn online. They include BA in Business (Marketing), BA Business and computing, BA criminology and sociology, BA Criminology, and Psychology with foundation year. Arden university emphasizes flexible ways to deliver the course for 24/7 support with one of the best virtual classrooms such as Microsoft Teams, Zoom, and Google classroom.

Additionally, the University uses big data to increase student performance but constantly evaluating the students. Experimental performance indicators produced by HESA revealed that the University is ahead of the benchmark and attracts students from low participation in the neighborhood to higher education. DLHE data available in the Arden University shows that more than 90% of the individuals of Arden distance learning students have gained carrier enhancement during their career studies with the same percentage being employed after graduation and thus revealing how Big data can play a critical part in enhancing student competitiveness in career life.

Big data have accounted for learning styles in the University. The Psychology department at the Arden University has incorporated big data in testing personality information and performance measures, and social indicators. When three are used in conjunction, they are used to identify the learning environment that will improve success for various students in their capacities. Students also use big data that the Arden university provides to assess specific programs’ requirements and compare these requirements to their personalities.

The student management department at Arden University uses predictive analytics, which is associated with Big data, to increase student retention. Using this method, Aden university can track the student’s progress in a specific major and thus even help the University assess the likelihood of dropping out and being successful in that particular major. It also allows the University to pinpoint some outrageous factors that may affect student dropout in the University and develop various programs meant to address this problem.

Discuss the key benefits organizations like Arden University gain after adopting Big Data.

It helps the organization come up with solutions to complicated questions. The Arden University is used to evaluate the existing data to evaluate various challenges living in higher education. A good example is how Arden University has used big data to investigate why enrollment has been declining. This has helped the University up its games in the performance indicators, thus attracting more students to solve the problem. It is even used to gain insights into whether student enrollment is declining in a particular department of the Arden University or even the whole institution, whether sections can be merged to increase productivity in the organization.

Secondly, it enables the organization to increase its accessibility. As a fact, it is messy searching through cabinets and wall-to-wall arrangements. However, big data relies on technological infrastructure. Thus, it is easier to capture, keep and manage data in an easier way that facilitates what an individual may be looking for.  However, data analytics come that the right software will help the organization create a more collaborative environment. Since big data is available in one centralized location, all individuals need is access to the internet and get what they needed.

Additionally, it saves on cost. I any organization, proper allocation is critical to efficiency. Cloud-based systems can further cut down storage costs and even go a long way to relieve the IT department of pressures (Wang 2016 pp 383) Data that has required transcription and manual sorting can be automated to reduce the work level, which saves money in the long run.

It is quick. With all the organizational information available in one centralized place, it saves various individuals an incredible amount of time weeding through files of information target a particular report. This enhances timely decisions in an organization.

Big data also helps an individual to adapt. It is not unusual to find adults trying to balance their families, work, and education in learning organizations like Arden University.  With the expansion of online learning, these individuals can quickly adapt to have more convenient classes such as late-night classes and even weekend classes.

Question 2 Explain the IT security and data privacy measures that an organization must implement. Ensure that you add the key provisions of GDPR that must be included.

Information safety needs to be a virtual space of fear for each entrepreneur. At this point, while you remember all the essential statistics you shop practically – from monetary records to clients’ private records – it’s not easy to understand the reasons why one may penetrate and how this action could genuinely harm your commercial enterprise. As indicated by the latest Verizon Data Breach Investigations Report, an expected “285 million records were undermined in 2008.” And 74 percent of those episodes were from outside sources.

Establishing strong passwords

A GDPR compliant password policy needs to strive to secure agency systems so that individual data can be meticulously protected. This means agencies should bear in mind safety pleasant practices while choosing what processes need to be implemented.

Restricting unauthorized logins remains the prime purpose of passwords. GDPR emphasizes protecting individual information. Therefore implementing these measures requires an individual to conform to GDPR provision for maximum protection of personal data. This calls for a firm password policy to conform to the law. Weak passwords are vulnerable assaults and thus may compromise the organization’s systems.

New passwords need to be distinct from formerly used passwords. Reusing passwords makes a hacker’s too easy, so it should be averted at any cost (Albrecht 2016 pp287). This also applies to the use of variations of previous passwords wherein handiest a tiny element of the password is changed, which include one wide variety or one letter.

Passwords must be at the least eight characters in length but preferably longer. Longer passwords are tougher to crack using brute pressure assaults than a short password. Cybersecurity experts regularly argue that the length is greater vital than complexity on the subject of passwords. They say that the longer ones are tougher to crack.

The password should not have individual data. Once more, this one is about not making it easy for the hacker. The use of any recognized statistics is a bad idea, so avoid setting your children name and pets as the password.

Update your programs regularly.

When choosing programming moves up to guarantee GDPR consistency, organizations should consider unsafe handling exercises. Such exercises may incorporate processing any of the following data about an individual.

  • Insights about identity.
  • Strict or political alliance or convictions.
  • Additional data are identifying with medical care.
  • Sexual personality or direction.
  • Data about DNA/Genetics.

Any business engaged with handling any of these kinds of individual information for an enormous scope, with relieving against any recognized dangers, requirements to ensure that it is permitted to do so legitimately and with requires the availability of programming softwares.


Europe’s software organizations are themselves affected by the approach of the GDPR. They should ensure that the product they make and the strategies they use are GDPR consistent. This is similarly valid for programming organizations based outside of the European Union, yet participate in the preparing the individual information of the residents of EU part states (Albrecht 2016 pp287). Organizations situated external the EU possibly need to consent to the GDPR when managing the personal data of EU occupants.

In any case, it is likely unrealistic to topographically partition clients into two distinctive work frameworks to manage their information in different habits. It is considerably more direct to apply the product, cycles, and techniques that the business has set up to guarantee GDPR consistency to the entirety of the individual information that it manages.

The GDPR necessitates that all information breaches should be reported to relevant authorities within a limit of 72 hours. The clock on the 72 hours begins “ticking,” in a manner of speaking, exactly when the business could sensibly be required to have seen that a break had occurred. Your business needs to guarantee that it utilizes suitable programming and situation to ensure that it can quickly and viably check if an information break has happened (Albrecht 2016 pp287). Up to a business can do this, it ought to be agreeable with this piece of the GDPR.

GDPR consistent programming updates are critical. They are ensuring that an organization has the entirety of the right programming to guarantee that the entirety of its cycles consent to the GDPR. This ought to incorporate the capacity to examine information to ensure that your organization process exact details that are entitled to the process and relevant to the purpose.

It must be remembered that it is not simple to update soft wares. Therefore, this calls for informing the involved staff about the requirements of GDPR since every employee has a role in ensuring that the company is GDPR compliant.

Roll out password security education

To limit weaknesses related to passwords, associations should principally assume the liability of educating the organization members about basic security measures. Workers are usually the objective of most assaults since they utilize accurate or precise passwords for everything. Programmers and people target workers to take their passwords through phishing practices as well as methods. Investing in the members of the organization about security measures is extremely pivotal.

The associations should implement guidelines that expect people to go to quarterly workshops to equip them with better security practices. Additional tracking measures should also be implemented to help the organization monitor all aspects of vital data and, if need be, pinpoints an individual.

Introduction of firewall

A firewall is a security gadget in an organization that controls what and who can access the access institution network. All traffic streams into the institution network from an external source should go through the firewall to guarantee the data being retrieved does not pose any risk of breaching the formulated standards. The firewall decides if something is a danger or not depends on the firewall strategy set up by the data security officer. The firewall will screen the solicitation; check the area name and IP address, and verify whether the data is coming from a predetermined and safe location. Suppose the firewall establishes that the information coming through is not acceptable. In that case, the client can, in any case, abrogate the firewall to permit the traffic to go through on the off chance that they have a sense of security.

Firewalls can come as both equipment and programming. Equipment firewalls are introduced as an outer part between the association’s PC organization and the internet service. Programming firewalls ordinarily come introduced on the working framework, which runs the workers in an organization or runs on the clients’ PCs. They help add a layer of insurance.

Question 3 Telecommunication and spreadsheets

Describe a cellular network, its principal components, and how it works

Telecommunication refers to a collection of standards and rules that allow communication between one application program and another regardless of the operating system or the hardware they are running on. On the other side, a cellular network is a wireless network with wireless last connections in which a fixed-location transceiver station is utilized to serve the divided network cells. The cell is provided network by the base station, and it can be used to transmit data, voice, and other types of information. The principal components of a cellular network are discussed below.

Basic station Controller

It is a portion that interfaces between BSC and a microwave link of cable are used to route calls from Mobile Switching Center and BSC.

BTS (Base Transceiver Station)

It is a pivotal part of the cell used to link up the subscriber to the cellular network for reception and data transmission. It makes use of network antennas as dispersed throughout the cell.

MSC (Mobile Switching Center)

The overall supervisor of a cellular network is linked to several routes cells and BSC between them. It uses a copper cable, microwave, or optics to connect one cellular network to another network like PSTN.

This kind of network functions with the organization of a Simcard in the geographical cell, and each of the cells contains various antennae to enhance transmission of every mobile gadget. Cellular data operate by recognizing the actual location which originates from the Simcard. Antennae convert electric signal generated by the transmitter to an electromagnetic wave that undergoes radiation, and finally, the RF is converted back to the original form of the electric signal (Chinchali et al., 2018 pp 1). However, there are four primary access schemes: Frequency Division Multiple Access, Time Division Multiple Access, Code Division Multiple Access, and Orthogonal. Frequency Division Multiple Access

Explain the benefits of a cellular network to a business

The cellular network presents a lot of benefits to businesses. Some of them include extensive coverage, connectivity choices to enhance that alternative to suit individual needs. Some of the services are outlined below.






Large network Coverage.

Since cellular network utilizes the pre-existing mobile networks, it results in an extensive coverage area. This, therefore, make it easy to deploy various devices in various cities as well as nations. This enhances staff productivity in an organization.

It increases the capability of the users.

The smaller the size as the case cellular networks, the higher the number of concurrent users. This enhances accessibility from a centralized location by the number of simultaneous users.

It Inhibits the total failure of an organization in case of loss of a single component.

Most cellular networks are decentralized and help the organization not be the prey of a single component’s failure.

Remote management and analytics.

Cellular networks allow remote disconnect, connect and troubleshoot various organization gadgets no matter where they are located. Therefore, this helps a diverse organization monitor multiple device downtimes and even their usage and thus help them take full advantage of their projects that rea anchored on cellular data.

Private network and security options are another.

Cellular networks are essential in protecting unauthorized access to organization data. This is important in case when there are tracking devices encompassing a particular network. This has become a pivotal issue in organizations such as health care that require patients’ data to be safely kept to avoid unauthorized access and the negative repercussions associated with such practices.  However, the cellular network can add a layer of security by use of IPsec protocols, APNS, and VPN.

Below is a spreadsheet from the Payroll department of Weaning Entertainment Ltd. Based on the information in the spreadsheet below, calculate:

Calculations are in Euros

TOTAL GROSS TAX= SUM (E2:E8) = 600300

TOTAL TAXES = =SUM (F2:F8) = 180090

Total net salary = SUM (G2:G8) =420210


Maximum TOTAL TAXES= MAX (F2:F8) =30000

Maximum net salary= = MAX (G2:G8) = 70000



Minimum net salary= =MIN (G2:G8) = 53130

Average gross tax = =AVERAGE (E2:E8)= 85757.1429

Average taxes = =average (F2:F8) = 25727.14

Average net tax= average (G2:G8) = 60030

Median gross tax= MEDIAN (E2:E8) = 85000

Median tax =median (F2:F8) = 25500

Median net salary= median(G2:G8)= 59500

Gross salary greater than 79990  =COUNTIF(E2:E8,”>79990″)

Net salary less than £67499.99 =COUNTIF(G2:G8,”<67499.99″)


First Name Last Name Employee Number Date  Gross Salary  Taxes  Net Salary
Rexford Tugwell ARD-1 30/09/20          90,000.00      27,000.00      63,000.00
Morgan Freeman ARD-75D 30/09/20        100,000.00      30,000.00      70,000.00
Kara Walker ARD-451Z 30/09/20          85,000.00      25,500.00      59,500.00
Kevin Hart ARD-747N 30/09/20          75,900.00      22,770.00      53,130.00
Rizwan Ali ARD-77F 30/09/20          95,000.00      28,500.00      66,500.00
Whitney Cummings ARD-889D 30/09/20          78,500.00      23,550.00      54,950.00
Billy Joel ARD-0077 30/09/20          75,900.00      22,770.00      53,130.00
Total        600,300.00    180,090.00    420,210.00
Maximum        100,000.00      30,000.00      70,000.00
Minimum          75,900.00      22,770.00      53,130.00
Mean          85,757.14      25,727.14      60,030.00
Median          85,000.00      25,500.00      59,500.00
More Than 79900
The Number Of Employees With A Gross Salary More Than £79900.00                 4
Number Of Employees With A Net Salary Less Than £67499.99                 6



Albrecht, J.P., 2016. How the GDPR will change the world. Eur. Data Prot. L. Rev.2, p.287.

Chinchali, S., Hu, P., Chu, T., Sharma, M., Bansal, M., Misra, R., Pavone, M. and Katti, S., 2018, April. Cellular network traffic scheduling with deep reinforcement learning. In Proceedings of the AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence (Vol. 32, No. 1).

Wang, Y., 2016. Big opportunities and big concerns of big data in education. TechTrends60(4), pp.381-384.

Yu, X. and Wu, S., 2015, October. Typical applications of big data in education. In 2015 International Conference of Educational Innovation through Technology (EITT) (pp. 103-106). IEEE.


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