Discussion on Drug addiction paper

                                                                 Drug addiction


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Addiction is a pathological disorder characterized by compulsive or difficult-to-control drug seeking and use despite negative consequences. Most people decide to take medications voluntarily, but long-term medication use can cause brain changes that threaten a toxic person’s self-control (Cami & Farre, 2003). While such brain changes are permanent, medical addiction is regarded as a relapse condition because people are at a high risk of recovering from drug-using disorders even after years of failure. It is normal for an individual to recur, but this does not imply that the treatment is ineffective. Treatment, like most chronic conditions, should be constantly changed based on the patient’s reaction. Treatment plans may also be revised and modified to meet the evolving needs of the patient.

                                   Literature review

Drug addiction is a recurring chronic condition in which compulsive drug use and drug use behavior continue severe negative consequences. The additives trigger anxiety or fun conditions. The continued use of the nervous system results in adaptation, physical dependency, memory, desire, and recurrence. Opioids, cannabinoids, ethanol, cocaine, amphetamines, and nicotine are examples of addictive substances. The term drug addiction emphasizes conceptual connotation and is less likely to be misunderstood than physical dependence. Tolerance and physical addiction are physiological adaptations to opioid effects, while the remaining requirements describe uncontrollable medication (Wise & Koob, 2013). Addictive substances are usually either a positive enforcer or a negative forcer alleviating symptoms of withdrawal or dysphoria. If medication is not present, environmental factors associated with substance use may also trigger a conditioned reaction.

Drug addiction can be detrimental to long-term social, psychological, and physical rehabilitation, and more successful treatment strategies must be implemented. In a growing number of studies, repetitive magnetic transcranial stimulation has been tested for the therapeutic potential of non-invasive brain stimulation in treating addictions (Younger et al., 2011). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation can effectively reduce cocaine craving, nicotine craving, alcohol craving, consumption, and maybe a potential treatment method for addiction. Further research is needed to determine optimal stimulation parameters for effective opioid addiction treatment and a clearer understanding of the neurophysiological therapy effects and the conduct of strict, regulated efficacy trials with sufficient power.

                             The key issue in the subject of drug addiction

The use and misuse of drugs raise a slew of social and ethical concerns. These are complicated, particularly when attitudes toward drug use in new communities are contradictory. Values may be influenced by a variety of factors, including social, religious, and personal beliefs. There can be significant gaps in beliefs and views within a single party, leading to disagreements over different substance abuse issues (Cami & Farre, 2003). Drug misuse has played a significant role in public culture since the 1960s. Public education and services on the dangers of substance usage and the forms in which individuals and communities can solve drug-related issues greatly affect increased opioid awareness and impacts. One of the most often debated topics in contemporary drug treatment centers is the legalization of currently illegal drugs. Another important issue is the use of drugs in athletics, which may send contradictory messages to young people whose role models are professional athletes.


                                 Opinion on the subject of drug addiction

Many people do not understand why or how certain people become addicted to drugs. You may falsely conclude that drug users lack moral values or motivation and instead choose to abstain from using drugs. Drug addiction is a complex disorder that requires more than good intentions or willpower to overcome. Drugs alter the brain in ways that make quitting difficult, even for those who want to. Fortunately, physicians are more conscious of the impact of narcotics on the brain than ever before. They have discovered medications that can help people heal from opioid addiction and lead productive lives (Bellamoli et al., 2014). Most drugs trigger euphoria and fill the brain’s reward circuit with chemical dopamine. A functioning reward system enables a person to replicate behaviors that must prosper, such as eating or spending time with loved ones. Dopamine spikes on the reward circuit reinforce gratification yet risky actions, such as medications, causing people to replicate their behavior. When a person continues to use medications, the brain may be changed by reducing the ability of cells to respond. This decreases the high level of resistance relative to the individual who takes the medication first (Bellamoli et al., 2014). You may need to take more medications to achieve the same effect. Such brain changes also result in people becoming increasingly dissatisfied with the food, sex, or social activities.                         

                                 Groups that follow in the subject matter

Groups of high cognitive abilities. Cognitive-skill groups are a developed component of opioid addiction and are particularly appropriate for early recovery. The phrase cognitive-competent treatment community encompasses a broad range of formats based on various theoretical consolidation formats. However, as a basic mechanism for transformation, cognitive restructuring is a recurring theme. Cognitive-behavioral groups view dependency as a learning course that can be modified by different measures such as identifying conditioned stimuli related to such addictive behaviors, preventing those stimuli, and developing better contingency management strategies (Wise & Koob, 2013). Neurobehavioral causes, bio-psycho-social factors, and disease models are all included, with genetic and physiological factors being the most important determinants of dependence etiology and being uncontrollable by the individual suffering from dependency. Cognitive-behavioral therapy groups attempt to alter their consciousness by altering their perception, behavior, and perceptions. Groups are now striving to build social networks that promote sustained abstinence to assist individuals dependent on behaviors, which can help to recur and strengthen regeneration strategies. Cognitive mechanisms involve various psychological components such as emotions opinions, opinions, desires, and assumptions. Abuse and addiction affect a person’s thoughts and values.

Group Interpersonal Process Psychotherapy. Psychodynamics, or an understanding of how people interact socially with interpersonal processes, may help transform and heal (Cami & Farre, 2003). The psychodynamic approach acknowledges that an individual’s right or wrong conduct is regulated by opposing forces in mind, some of which exist outside of one’s conscious awareness. One of the opposing powers is adherence to others. Psycho dynamically developmental disorders are a major issue beginning in early childhood, and their genetic and other biological properties make them especially vulnerable to environmental impacts. The interpersonal process community raises and re-examines important developmental problems for many individuals drawn to opioid addiction. When destructive, unhealthy patterns of relationships are viewed and formed, the community of participants may begin to change them. Members of the group are gradually able to form social bonds with one another, resulting in a loss of control and attraction to alcohol and drugs.

                                             Summary of the topic

Because of the connection between substance abuse and violence, detecting young drug users in the criminal justice system is a critical first step in drug and crime interventions. Strategy for preventing future drug use and violence and effective regulation of illegal drugs Drug testing is a constructive way for young people to address their lack of knowledge about drug abuse. As part of the initiative, drug testing can aid in the recovery of young people and reduce other forms of abuse. In the long run, successful drug recognition would allow young judicial bodies to achieve a balanced approach that includes defense, obligations, and skill growth. Most programs had sponsored drug testing programs, particularly when staff was involved in the program’s initial planning.

There are often minor problems connected with youth participation in activities, and many examples of parental assistance have been given. Overall, community members welcomed and accepted the measures, although a few events caused certain individuals and groups to be initially resistant. The procedure for following up on test results is an important component of the drug detection program. The drug assessment is an effective tool for case planning and continuous monitoring of young people who misuse drugs. The willingness of young judicial professionals to immediately pay young petoug abuse in order to have an effect on prevention and the pursuit of effective education and therapeutic programs.



Bellamoli, E., Manganotti, P., Schwartz, R. P., Rimondo, C., Gomma, M., & Serpelloni, G. (2014, January 23). RTMS in the Treatment of Drug Addiction: An Update about Human Studies. Behavioural Neurology. https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bn/2014/815215/

Camí, J., & Farré, M. (2003). Drug Addiction. New England Journal of Medicine, 349(10), 975–986. https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmra023160

Wise, R. A., & Koob, G. F. (2013). The Development and Maintenance of Drug Addiction. Neuropsychopharmacology, 39(2), 254–262. https://doi.org/10.1038/npp.2013.261

Younger, J. W., Chu, L. F., D’Arcy, N. T., Trott, K. E., Jastrzab, L. E., & Mackey, S. C. (2011). Prescription opioid analgesics rapidly change the human brain. Pain, 152(8), 1803–1810. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2011.03.028


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