Discussion on Business Marketing

Business Marketing: Business Marketing plays a key role in the business operations in increasing the brand image of an organization about the products of the services of the business organization among the customers. It refers to the activities of the business organizations, including government, commercial businesses, or institutions that allow them to remote their products and services. Marketing includes selling, advertising, and delivering services and products to other businesses. Business marketing intends to take any particular product or service, address its suitable customers and attract the customers to purchase those products or services (Brennan et al., 2020). It generally uses a marketing mix of 4ps of marketing which includes product, place, price, and promotion.

Customer loyalty program: A customer loyalty program is a type of business marketing approach which helps the business owners to recognize their loyal customers who buy their products or services on a regular basis and allows them to reward those customers. A business company can offer their loyal customers perks of points in order to engage them with the business brand. The benefits or incentives generally include rewards, free merchandise, coupons, perks, or early access to the latest products (Kwiatek et al., 2020). In this way, the business can ensure a better rate of customer retention and a high level of customer satisfaction.

Fixed costs are not always fixed due to some significant reasons for which there is a rise in the consumption of power, massive changes in regulations, and advancement in current technologies. A suitable example for this statement will be the switching of telephonic technologies. The cost of different fax and phone lines was never given too much attention since those are considered as a fixed cost. However, in the modern era, scientists have introduced voice-over internet protocol or VoIP, which can help to save the expenses of the telephone and fax lines. Therefore, the fixed coast of telecommunication can vary,


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Break-even analysis helps to calculate and examine the level of safety for a business on the basis of associated and collection costs. This analysis shows the business owners the number of sales needed to pay the expenses of the business operations. The situation where the break-even analysis can be used is in the study of the relations between revenue, fixed cost, and variable cost (Sintha et al., 2020). In general, the business which has low fixed costs will have a low break-even point of its sales. If a company has fixed costs of $10,000 and another company has $1 00,000 fixed costs for a similar product, the former company will break even by selling lesser no. of products than the latter company.
A budget refers to the evaluation of the expenses and profit revenue for a mentioned time period. It is usually estimated and compiled on the basis of a specific period; Budgets are prepared for an individual, the government, group of people, or any organization or entity which gains Profit and spends money.

The objectives of preparing a budget are discussed below.

i)A budget provides a business proper guidance regarding the business structure and the future direction in where the business should be going. It generally forms a structure of business planning. The management implies budget on a company which does not have a proper sense of direction. The budget provides a sufficient amount of business structure which is reviewed and refereed by the management consistently. A budget also helps the management to evaluate the performances of the employees on the basis of expectations included in the budget.

ii)A budget is extremely beneficial for the companies which are experiencing constant growth or which have irregular patterns of sales or seasonal sales. These types of companies generally face difficulties in estimating cash flow. A budget helps the companies to predict cash flow to prevent cash-related crises in the future.



The differences between revenue and capital expenditure are

i) Capital expenditure refers to the money spent by an organization to obtain assets or enhance the quality of the existing assets, whereas revenue Expenditure refers to the money spent by firms to maintain the business operations on a regular basis.

ii) Capital expenditure is incurred for a long period of time while revenue expenditure is incurred for a short-term. Revenue expenses are generally limited to one year of accounting.

iii)Capital expenditure  is stated as CAPEX in the statement of cash flow whereas revenue expenditure  is stated as OPEX in the income statement of the business.

iv)Capital expenditure appears in the fixed assets secretions in the balance sheet, whereas the revenue expenditures does not appear in the balance sheet.

v)The purpose of capital expenditure is to increase the capacity of earning of a company while the purpose of revenue expenditure is to sustain the profitability of a company

i)The data and figures should be transformed into stories in order to better attract the people. The stories will help to maintain the interest of the audiences. A storytelling budget presentation will explain who will be affected by the data and figures, the sources of them  and the importance of those figures (Corrigan, 2018).

ii)The 10-20-30 rule by Guy Kawasaki  should be used in the PowerPoint presentations of the budget. It generally divides the budget presentation in 3 parts, including 10 slides, last 20 minutes and 30 points in the slides. In this way, the budget presentation can be kept concise and to -the point and can engage the audience.



An organization can have budget management by planning and properly operating the budget. An effective budget planning will define the short and long-term financial goals of the company. It will also help to set objectives by aligning them with the goals and strategies of the business. The management of the organization should impose budgeting in its every department so that it can put the financial resources required to attain the goals and objectives of the departmental operations (Liu et al., 2020). The planning of the budget should also include fixed, estimated, and variable costs for the business operations and the cost of implementation of emergency funds.
It is very important to compare the actual financial results to the estimated budget since

i)It will allow the business owners to identify the weakness in the specific areas of the  businesses accurately  so that they can take actions in order to improve those areas through better monitoring, controlling, planning and evaluating.

ii)It helps the management to know the income of the budget and the amount of the business expenses

iii)It enables the business owners to forecast the financial situations on the basis of the data collected in the monthly and  quarterly budget and alter the future of the financial forecast



Version: 2.1 Page 11 of 20
Created: September 2016 Last Reviewed: February 2020



An example of a financial system used in the organization is Financial statements. These statements refer to the written records which show the activities and financial performance of a business. This is used by the organization for investing, financing and tax purposes. It included three types of written statements such as balance sheet, cash flow statement, and income statement. A balance sheet gives an overview of the liabilities and assets of the company along with the equity of the stockholders. Income statements provide statements of expenses and revenue of the company for a specific time period. The cash flow gives a measurement of the company to generate cash with which it pays debts and finances investment and expenses of the operations (Osadchy et al., 2021).


You are required to answer the following questions:

  1. Prepare a statistical budget, in a tabular format.
Type of patients No. of patients Type of band-aid Price of band-aid per patient Budgeted revenue(No. of patients* price of band-aid per patient) Net revenue per patient Total net revenue Variance
Adult 400 Regular band-aid $1 $400 $20 $8000 $7600
Children 700 Glow-in-the-dark Band-aid $2 $1400 $20 $14000 $12600
Total 1100     $1800   $22000 $20200


The total operating budget is $400+$1400=$1800

The total net revenue is $8000+$14000=$22000

The total Profit is $7600+$12600=$20200

  1. Present the result in a graphical format.
Total revenue Profit
$220000 $20200


Figure 1: Total revenue and Profit

The Hospital’s flu season campaign brings forth additional patients resulting in actual patients as 300 adults and 1,000 children. Perform a variance analysis and answer the following questions.



The increase in volume of sales will bring change in the budgeted revenue which is more powerful than the expenses of the business



The change in patient mix will negatively affect the fiancés of the department.




The number of tickets needed to sold to ensure that the program is a break-even are=

Total fixed costs/(∙ Ticket Price per Participant- Variable Cost per Participant)= 10080/(20-2)=10080/18-560



Scenario B – Variation of the basic break-even point problem
The formula of break-even point = Fixed costs/ (Sales price per unit-variable cost per unit)

Therefore the formula for sales price per unit =(Fixed cost/ break-even point)+variable cost per unit

In this problem, the minimum price that spectators must be charged are =(Total fixed cost/ number of participants required)+ variable cost per participant)=(10000/500)+5=20+5=$25



The formula of break-even point = Fixed costs/ (Sales price per unit-variable cost per unit)

Therefore, the variable cost per unit =Sales price per unit- (Fixed cost/break-even point)

The maximum price of meal per person which can be afforded =Ticket price per person-(Fixed cost on entertainment and prizes/no. of people who will attend the awards)=30-(1500/100)=30-15=$15

The fixed cost for the venue A = $1200

The maximum seating capacity of the venue A = 500

The revenue per participant for the venue A =10-5.20=4.80

The total revenue =4.80*500=2400

The net income or Profit from venue A = 2400-1200=$1200


The fixed cost for the venue B=$3,500

The maximum seating capacity of the venue A = 1000

The revenue per participant for the venue A =10-5.20=4.80

The total revenue =4.80*1000=4800

The net income or Profit from venue B= 4800-3500=$1300


The fixed cost for the venue C=$9000

The maximum seating capacity of the venue C = 2000

The revenue per participant for the venue C =10-5.20=4.80

The total revenue =4.80*2000=9600

The net income or Profit from venue A will be 9600-9000=$600

Therefore, the venue B will be the most profitable at maximum capacity


Tesco PLC is a multinational retail company in the UK. It is one of the most profitable and largest supermarket chains in the retail industry of the UK. It mainly offers retailing products and services including clothing, books, furniture, electronics, petrol, toys, software, internet, telecom, and financial services.



Activity: Tesco will carry out a fundraising activity to collect a donation of $3 million to contribute to charities which were negatively impacted by the outbreak of covid-19. The pandemic Covid-19 has forced to cancel several fundraising events and closed the retails hops temporarily. Therefore, there has been a massive decline in the income of the charities. Therefore, Tesco will encourage its customer to support the charities in saving millions of lives. The Tesco retails stores across the UK will support the appeal of Health Charity Partnership to collect money for the Cancer Research Organization, British heart Foundation and Diabetes Organization in the UK.

Stakeholders: The customers of Tesco will be invited to participate in this event. Besides, this event has invited several medical professionals to raise awareness about Covid-19 and government officials, NGO owners and business owner to raise funds for the event.

Process: The duration of this charity event will be 13 days, and it is estimated that the donation from the customer will be around $1.5 million, which will go to the charities. The people who will not be able to come to the retail stores, they can donate through the online website of Tesco or by sending an SMS to the customer service number of Tesco to donate $5. The customers can also donate by using mobile payment. Besides, Tesco will organize a charity function for the customers where all the people of the UK are invited. The tickets for the charity function will cost $30 per person


Types of funding process Revenue per people Total people Total revenue
Checkout at sales $5 50000 250000
SMS $5 50000 250000
Mobile payment $5 20000 100000
Ticket of charity function $300 3000 $900000
NGO $250000 2 $500000
Government officials $300000 2 600000
Business owners $40000 1 400000
Total revenue     300000


Expenses Amount
Advertisement and promotion 50000
Venue Arrangements 150000
Catering 100000
Guest Invitation 500000
Total expenses 800000
Profit 2200000



Particulars Budgeted Actual Variance
Checkout at sales 250000 150000 100000
SMS 250000 200000 50000
Mobile payment 100000 75000 25000
Ticket of charity function 900000 450000 450000
NGO 500000 500000 0
Government officials 600000 600000 0
Business owners 400000 400000 0
Total revenue 300000 2375000 625000
Advertisement and promotion 100000 125000 25000
Venue Arrangements 150000 175000 25000
Catering 100000 125000 25000
Guest invitation 500000 550000 50000
Total expenses 800000 925000 12500
Profit 2200000 1450000 750000

The reason for the variances in a low amount of funding is the fear of contracting the coronavirus due to which low no. of customers have visited the physicals stores and very few people have participated in the charity events. Besides, the cobvid-19 has weakened the economy of the country due to which the no. people who have donated to these fund raising events is a lot less than expected. The poor economy is another reason for the expensive cost in venue arrangements and catering



The Local council of the UK and the World Health organization has given approval for this fundraiser event. The local volunteer will be given responsibilities and work duties for this event.



The budget should be planned in the future considering the economy of the country and the demand of the fundraising events. Besides, the no. of stakeholders should be increased to raise more funds for this type of event.



The entire budget process will be presented through face to face meeting, press release, and public presentation process




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