Diagnostics and Labs Test



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Fungal Skin Infections

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Fungal Skin Infections


The last numerous decades have seen an unprecedented alteration in the pattern of fungal skin infections in human beings. These infections are associated with ringworms confined to the stratum corneum, which may enter the body through mucous membranes or occluded skin surfaces of the human being. Inside the body, fungi make their dwelling in most areas of the body where skin surfaces meet, such as toes, under the breasts, and in the genital area. Even they live in the topmost layer of the epidermis and fail to penetrate deeper. As a result, almost millions of fungi may lead to skin problems such as bumps and rashes.  Such types may cause irritation, scaly skin, itching, redness, swelling, and blisters. Many common fungal skin infections have resulted in yeast, such as Malassezia furfur or Candida. Many people affected by such disease are obese since they have excessive skinfolds, specifically if their skin within a skinfold becomes irritated and broken down. Besides, individuals with diabetes tend to great likely susceptible to fungal infections as well. Since the infections primarily affect individuals, treatment using antifungal drugs may assist in healing the affected area within the skin. The paper’s objective will discuss fungal skin infections, their pathophysiology, diagnostics and lab tests, and treatment plan.


Fungal skin infections are entirely common in the natural world. In individuals, they occur when an invading fungus takes over a body’s position, making the immune system hard to handle. When they invade the body, usually challenging to be killed since they can survive at any temperature generated by the body. The infections composing micro-organisms that cannot be seen with naked eyes keep on re-infect the individuals when attempting to get better since they keep on mutating if the individuals do not take great care (Kozel, 2017). They alter with the state of the body, especially the skin where an individual’s skin changes to red and may develop cracking or peeling of the skin. Fungal skins infections such as athletes foot may severely affect individual legs where can barely walk. Primarily people who are affected by such infection are those who are associated with sports and athletes since most of them do not wear shoes when playing. Such an area being warm offers a conducive environment to grow fungus, entering the individual body via foot. Such people may develop redness or blisters on the affected area, making them unable to play their normal game (Kozel, 2017).

The infected skin may also be soft, or layers begin to break down, leading athletes to be unable to carry out his or her routine well. Other alterations of the normal function of fungal skin infections are they make the skin scale and peel away, itching, stinging, or burning sensations in the infected position. Yeast infections also promote other alterations in the normal function of the body. This infection primarily affects women, disrupting the normal balance of the bacteria and yeast in the vagina. The imbalance of bacteria may result because of stress, antibiotics and hormone imbalances, or poor eating habits. They affect the body by resulting in itching and swelling around the vagina (Jaliman, 2020). Incidence of burning sensations or pain during intercourse or urination is also experienced. Soreness and redness on and around the vagina and unusual vaginal discharge such as gray clumps are also encountered.

Fungal skin infections such as ringworm are caused by a fungus that dwells on dead tissues, encompassing skin, nails, and hair. The infection is usually easy to be traced because of its shape. It is usually a red patch that typically itches or be scaly, which later may be developed into a raised, ring-shaped skin patch if medication is not carried out. The outside of the ring is usually bred and appears bumpy or raised, while the inside of the ring remains become scaly or clear. The ring normally contagious which can be transmitted via skin-to-skin contact. The ringworm fungus lives in wet areas; therefore, individuals who work or play in such areas may catch ringworm as well (Jaliman, 2020).

Diagnostics and Labs Test

There various effective lab tests that can be ordered for patients who have developed fungal skin infections. Such tests are utilized to assist in diagnosing and guide the treatment of fungal infections. Labs tests include a test for superficial infections, deep tissue, lung, systemic infections, gram stain, bacterial culture, and blood culture (Luke, 2017). Tests for superficial infections are diagnosed by healthcare experts grounded on a clinical examination and experience. Such laboratory tests are usually helpful in detecting and confirming a fungal infection which assists in guiding treatment. The test traces skin infections that have characteristic signs that are similar to diverse fungal skin infections. The experts may look if the infections are not what positions of the body to know or figure out what certain of the infections might be affect the patient (Luke, 2017). The expert uses microscopic examinations such as potassium hydroxide preparation and calcofluor white stain to detect and confirm a fungal infection for better diagnoses.

The other test lab, such as tests for deep tissue, lung, and systemic infections usually used to examine infections that are frequently nonspecific and hardly to be traced. Laboratory testing is basically utilized to diagnose serious fungal infections to pinpoint the microbe responsible and determine their likely susceptibility to particular antimicrobial agents. The testing was also carried out to detect and pinpoint fungi that may be resulting in a concurrent infection. The sample collected for examination depends upon the suspected locations which can be infected (Luke, 2017).

Antigen and Antibody testing can be carried out to recognize which infections are affecting the patients. This testing is carried out to trace various fungi but used only for systemic or deep infections, which are carried out on the blood or other body fluid such as cerebrospinal fluid. Another lab test, such as gram stain, was used to detect fungi that developed yeast infections in the individuals. When carried out by experts and effectively promote recognition of the infections that affect patients, such tests promote wellbeing(Luke, 2017).

Molecular diagnostics and antigen detection form basic diagnostic tests that are carried out for the patient to promote their wellbeing. Such activities have the potential to meet the requirements of both resource-rich and resource-limited clinical surroundings. The diagnostics mentioned above possess sensitivity and specificity, which makes them useful in most clinical settings across the world. They usually involve microscopic examination of clinical samples, culture, and histopathology (Khachatourians, 2017). For instance, molecular diagnostics utilizes in vitro biological assays such as fluorescence or PCR-ELISA in situ hybridization. The assay detects a fungus, often with high or low concentration, which might generate risk or be a threat to patients’ health. Antigen detection, on the other hand, diagnosis of fungal infections in affected individuals. The most commonly utilized methods are latex agglutination and enzyme immunoassay, which allows detection of fungal antigen in serum or exudate from the site of suspected infection. When carried out effectively, such activities result in well examination of the patients in affected areas by fungi (Khachatourians, 2017).

Treatment Plan

A cream a mode of treatment utilized to treat fungal skin infections all entire the body. Also, incorporate counter shampoo to mitigate flaking, itching, and dandruff. The sprays, injections, and solutions tablets are designed to damage the fungus’ cell wall, which results in the fungal cell dying. The antifungal cream is combined with a mild steroid cream such as hydrocortisone to treat rashes and other skin abnormalities. The antifungal cream clears the infection, and the mild steroid cream minimizes the inflammation caused by the infection. Antifungal injections are commonly utilized if one possesses severe fungal infection within the body. An itraconazole, amphotericin, flucytosine, voriconazole, caspofungin, anidulafungin, and micafungin are medicines that are used when injecting patients who have developed fungal skins infections (Willacy, 2018). They are usually chosen depending on the type of fungus resulting in the infection. The medications are typically utilized for individuals who are usually severely ill in the hospital. Antifungal shampoo, which comprises ketoconazole, is sometimes utilized to treat scalp fungal infections and other skin conditions, provided they originate from fungi infections. The other treatment administered to patients who have developed fungal skin infections is antifungal pessaries. The element is in the form of a tablet which is designed to be put into the vagina. Antifungal medicines are utilized as pessaries to offer treatment on vaginal thrush, specifically econazole, fenticonazole, miconazole, and clotrimazole. When effectively administered to the patients, such discussed mode of treatment eradicates the incidence of fungal skin infections (Willacy, 2018).


In conclusion, it is evidenced how fungal skin infection is, its causes, and how it is mitigated through administering the treatment. A cream is a mode of treatment utilized to treat fungal skin infections all entire the body. Also, incorporate counter shampoo to mitigate flaking, itching, and dandruff. The sprays, injections, and solutions tablets are designed to damage the fungus’ cell wall, which results in the fungal cell to die. The antifungal cream is combined with a mild steroid cream such as hydrocortisone to treat rashes and other skin abnormalities. . Antifungal medicines are utilized as pessaries to offer treatment on vaginal thrush, specifically econazole, fenticonazole, miconazole, and clotrimazole. Such treatment provides quality service to the patients where he or she may not be able to complain complication provided takes precaution assigned by the physician or other expert specialized in that field. Apart from the treatment, the paper discussed the causes of the infections and where they affect them. Fungal skin infections such as ringworm are caused by a fungus that dwells on dead tissues, encompassing skin, nails, and hair. The infection is usually easy to be traced because of its shape.

Even the papers explain in detail the lab test for figuring out the kind of infections. Such lab tests include superficial infections, deep tissue, lung, systemic infections, gram stain, bacterial culture, and blood culture. Tests for superficial infections are diagnosed by healthcare experts grounded on a clinical examination and experience. Such laboratory tests are usually helpful in detecting and confirming a fungal infection which assists in guiding treatment.




















Willacy, D. (2018). Antifungal Creams and Medication | Types, Uses and Side Effects | Patient. Retrieved 30 May 2021, from https://patient.info/infections/fungal-infections/antifungal-medicines

Khachatourians, G. (2017). Fungal antigens – an overview | ScienceDirect Topics. Retrieved 30 May 2021, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/agricultural-and-biological-sciences/fungal-antigens

Kozel, T. (2017). Fungal Diagnostics. Retrieved 30 May 2021, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3968782/

Jaliman, D. (2020). Fungal infections: Symptoms, types, and treatment. Retrieved 30 May 2021, from https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/317970

Luke, G. (2017). Fungal Infections | Lab Tests Online. Retrieved 30 May 2021, from https://labtestsonline.org/conditions/fungal-infections

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