Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale



Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale
Just from $9/Page
Order Essay

Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale – 21 (DASS-21)

 Depression and nervousness the most prevalent non-psychotic disorders that are increasingly causing public health concern.  There is an escalating need for the measure to be used by clinicians in identifying individuals with mental health problems in the society. Further, there is a need for a clear definition of the relation between depression and anxiety and the rising controversies about the same.

The depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS) is a metric widely used to screen for symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress in both community and clinical settings. DASS encompasses three subsets; the stress scale, which measures distress, tension, negativity, and anxiety scale, which asses autonomic stimulation, musculoskeletal reactions, situational nervousness; and the depression measure checks out for hopelessness, low self-esteem, and decreased levels of positive effect. DASS can be assessed in two forms the full 42 item version or the short half version consisting of 21 items. DASS-42 has 14 items in each subset, while DASS-21 has seven items in each subgroup.

The DASS 21 measures distress quantitively, explaining related causes, including depression, anxiety, and stress.  The results yielded by DASS are usually slightly different from those gotten from DAS-42. It is, however, advantageous as it can be administered in less time, making it more suitable for a clinical setting. To compare DASS-21 with DASS normative data, the scores are multiplied by two.  Different measurements are available to categorize the extent of emotional disturbance. The categories range from mild, moderate, severe to extreme.

Scholarly evidence for DASS setting in a clinical setting is available mostly in English-speaking countries, including Canada, the united states, England and Australia. Numerous studies in this area are proof of the validity, reliability, and psychometric efficiency of DASS-21. Various researchers have also explored the wide use of DASS-21 in both clinical and non-clinical settings while coming up with viable results and drawing sensible conclusions. This scale has also been used in diagnosing the lotus of emotional discomfort, exploring the extent of depression and anxiety symptoms.

DASS-21 was used in this research as is it helps clinicians identify the source of a patient’s emotional turbulence. It is useful in complementing other data gathered from clinical assessment and providing necessary knowledge into a person’s emotional quotient.  DASS is useful in indicating a patient’s progress over a certain period and observation. With records of the patients’ moods over time, clinicians can make comparisons and relations deducing factors that could trigger emotional changes, getting more specific data on both positive and negative emotional triggers. More significantly, The DASS 21 is a self-reporting assessment, with no person’s restrictions to administer it and no associated costs. It is a public domain, and special permission from authorities is not necessary. Nevertheless, the analysis and interpretation of this calls for expertise in psychology and mental health professions.

As a self-report technique, respondents who agreed to participate in this research completed the questionnaires. It was completed before and after the project to evaluate respondents’ progress over a certain period. The BHC’s interpretation was conducted and explained to each participant pre-project initiation and post projection completion and CBT intervention. The process only encountered the limitation of a few uncooperative participants.  Data collected from respondents was recorded on reliable database systems without exposing the identity of the participants. The data was also subjected to tests and peer review to ensure its validity. The data was secured from landing unauthorized hands through end-to-end encryption, and passcodes were availed to authorized parties only.

Body Mass Index (BMI)

Body Mass Index (BMI) is a useful and effective method to assess whether an individual’s weight falls in the range of overweight or obese. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention identifies obesity in adults as having a BMI greater than 30.0 or more. BMI is calculated by taking an individual’s weight in Kilograms divided by the square of height in meters (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014; The Lancet, 2009). Adiposity has been associated with a higher risk of developing and being diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes and other diseases ranging from cardiovascular disease, hypertension to hypercholesterolemia (Castelnuovo et al., 2017). Adiposity not only increases the possibility of medical complications and comorbidities but is also associated with premature death (Fock & Khoo, 2013; The Lancet, 2009; National Institute of Health [NIH], n.d.). It is estimated that approximately 42.4% percent of adults in the United States twenty (20) years and older suffer from obesity (Leung et al., 2017; Moores, 2020). As a significant risk factor for diabetes and diabetes-related comorbidities, individuals with a high-level BMI in the obesity range also create higher health care expenditures than individuals with a lower BMI (Leung et al., 2017).

Body mass index is a scale used to measure weight will adjusting for height, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square height of an individual. It is a sensible indicator of body fats for all groups of people but should not be used in diagnosis as it measures excess weight rather than the amount of fat in the body. Nevertheless, various studies have indicated that BMI correlates to more direct body fat measures such as underwater weight.

This research sought to use BMI measure because it is simple and less costly. Compared to other methods, BMI relies on weight and weight, which require simple tools to measure. Weight and height measurement tools are easily available in both the community and clinical setting. It is thus easy for individuals to have their BMI frequently checked with little effort.

Various scholars have explored the relationship between BMI  and fat and future body health, indicating that BMI can predict future morbidity and death.  This makes BMI an objective measure for screening obesity and associated health perils.

More objectively, the widespread and longstanding use of BMI backs utility both in the community and clinical setting. Its usage has led to increased documentation and publication related to enabling clinicians to compare regions, various groups, and time.

When using BMI, its clinical limitations ought to be considered. BMI measures body weight in relation to height and not body fat. It does not define the relationship between body mass index and the amount of fat in the body. Also, BMI does not differentiate body fat from muscle and bone fat and does not indicate fat distribution amongst different groups. More significantly, a variety of factors including muscle mass, ethnicity, gender, and age are bound to influence the relationship between body fat and BMI; for instant, younger adults are likely to have less body fat than younger adults, females have more fat in their bodies than male counterparts with the same BMI, and athletic people may tend to have more BMI due to muscle build-up rather than fat.

The BMI scale is an individual’s weight in pounds divided by the square of height in feet and inches (American Heart Association, 2014).  A high BMI may be an indicator of high body fatness. BMI was used to screen for weight categories that may lead to health problems; however, BMI is not diagnostic for individual health.  The BMI scale categories are as follows: Underweight = <18.5 or under, Normal Weight = 18.5 – 24.9, Overweight = 25 – 29.9, Obesity = BMI of 30 > or greater (CDC, 2014). For BMI scale (see Appendix B). for a table of scale categories (CDC, 2014).

In this project, BMI scores were obtained from participant EMRs pre and post diabetes education self-management and CBT interventions. Primary care patients’ BMI are routinely assessed at in-take prior to all PCP visits. BMI scores are calculated and entered into the electronic medical records (EMR) by the primary care physicians’ nurses. The BHC was provided access to the EMR following the completion of the required EMR training. This access allowed the BHC to obtain the BMI from each participant in this project pre and post-educational self-management and CBT. There were no barriers associated with getting BMI for participants, and no expenditures were required.


Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment Help Service Works

1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essay GET A PERFECT SCORE!!! smile and order essay Buy Custom Essay

Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more
error: Content is protected !!
Open chat
Need assignment help? You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp using +1 718 717 2861

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.
  +1 718 717 2861           + 44 161 818 7126           [email protected]
  +1 718 717 2861         [email protected]