Criminal and Anti Social Behaviour



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Essay question:

Influence of psychological, social and environmental factors on both victim and offender’s anti-social and criminal behaviour 

The concept of criminology states that criminal actions and antisocial behaviour are highly influenced by the social, psychological and the environmental factors. The purpose of the essay is to delve into all the social, psychological and environmental factors while comprehending how they influence the anti-social behaviour and the criminal mindsets for both the offenders and as well as the victims. With the factors, use of criminal theories would be equally involved and a theoretical discussion would be developed to showcase the conceptual relevance of the same.

Influence of psychological factor

According to criminology, criminal behaviour is an act of violation that is something that not only violates the societal norms, way if living, but also the violation of criminal laws (Hidayat, 2020). Crime is a particular representation of behaviour that is not itself innate in nature, but the central and nervous system is considered to be reactive to environment and upbringing and even psychological factors (Strauss-Hughes et al. 2019). Taking place at some of the most individual levels, is very personal levels, psychological factors entails different processes and it often tends to attribute to particular situation, these situations could potentially have exponential effects on the mental states. Abnormal psychological traits have found to be perpetuating different criminal behavioural developments over time (Ling et al. 2019). These traits are often deterministic in nature and some of the most visibly apparent different dimensions in these traits could possibly be recognised and a consistent pattern of thoughts, feelings and emotions are found to be existing in the traits (Lee and Kim, 2020). Under psychological behaviours, the aspect of personality factors is also relevant that often play crucial roles to influence the anti-social behaviour and criminal attributes (Land, 2018). These personal factors are as follows: extraversion, neuroticism, and even psychoticism. According to criminological experts, these personality factors do in fact contribute to one’s tendency to engage in antisocial behaviour or even criminal behaviour and their overall malfunction behavioural developments (Khudaykulov, 2021).

The extreme amount of neuroticism, is also something that accentuates the higher persistence of criminal behavioural developments amongst individuals and the likelihood of criminal behaviour is highly increased and continues to get reinforced (Jolliff and Farrington, 2018). The aspect of learning social rules and all sorts of civil conditionings are often intervened with the aspect of combined neuroticism and extraversion (Johnson, 2019). With this the likelihood of criminal behavioural development gets increased. The sensitivity of guilt gets reduced and the rigidity in one’s behaviour is likely to get increased with the aspect of increasing psychoticism (Jeffery and Zahm, 2017). The correlation of the trait is often forming the behavioural traits such as antisocial, behavioural, unempathetic and impulsively impersonal minds and that does influence on the increasing antisocial behaviour and the criminal tendencies of the offenders (Jacques, 2019). Beside personality factors, under psychological factors, individual variables such as emotional behaviours, academic achievements, or even intelligence are often playing the role of determining the chances of engaging in criminal behaviours (Hidayat, 2020). As considered to eb one of the crucial risk factors by the criminological experts, personality and psychological factors are an assisting aspect for conceptualising and comprehending the behaviour of the criminals and for the further theoretical explanations of the same (Dargis and Koenigs, 2017).

Social factor on anti-social and criminal behaviour 

Factors that are generally present in the society and have the tendency to influence the individuals living in the society to essentially indulge in criminal behaviours (Casey, 2019). Criminal traits and actions are often manifested as various outcomes of all the existing social factors, and every kinds of social interactions that go on in the society that are mostly related to all sorts of ongoing social process. Overabundance of criminal contacts or networks are often considered to be the reason why the act of criminal indulgences is considered to be perpetuating anti-social behaviour amongst the offenders and are considered to be the sufficient cause of the same (Berryessa, 2020). The aspect of growing up in community and neighbourhood thus comes into the context. Social disorganisation theory on the other hand states that the neighbourhood and the environment where the offender is likely to be growing up and is getting conditioned matter how they are going to participate in all the criminal behaviours (Beckley et al. 2018). These environmental factors are such as deteriorated socio-economic status, or venue increasing amount of unemployment, decreasing educational opportunities, deteriorated housing systems, or even different sorts of activities that could potentially foster criminal behavioural developments a character trait. The aspect of social disorganisation theory is of the opining that the conformity to the lower class sub culture is often the reason that affects and perpetuates the criminal behaviour (Wilcox and Land, 2017).

The criminal gangs emerging from the areas that socioeconomically deprived after all is indicative of the neighbourhood they usually grew up in and how they managed to develop. The aspect of family relationships and the kinds of marital status they have, is also something that plays a huge role in orchestrating criminal behavioural developments (Tsang, 2018). lack of comprehension o all the societal norms and all the rules are why the aspect of increasing criminal activities are well justified (Strauss-Hughes et al. 2019). The aspect of family members and the influence of the mother or any mother figure for that matter play a significant role amongst the offender’s psychological behavioural developments and is considered to be one of the prime factors in the overall manifestation of criminal behaviour (Papalia et al. 2020). The aspect of education is something that is highly considered in criminological theories such as the age graded theory where it states how the higher education and better professional or career-oriented achievements help people restrain from any sorts of negative or criminal behavioural developments (Natarajan, 2017). The ratio for prisoned criminals has found to be in studies that the percentage between employed or educated and unemployed and socially deprived inmates have drastic differences (Moffitt, 2018). The number of people is therefore likely to be engaged in socially restricted actions due to the fact that they have less educational opportunities or financial settlements in terms of career, jobs, or even employments (Mallett and Schall, 2019).

Environmental factor

The aspect of environmental factors is nearly as similar as the social factors; however, the differences lie in the fact that the aspect of environment suggest a much bigger areas than just the society (Ling et al. 2019). The society or the social factor indicate at the community, it also hints at the limitation of area or certain small sections of people where they live in a specific range of areas (Lee and Kim, 2020). However, the aspect of environment is something that suggest that the developments of an entire states and the state of politics and how everything is conducted on a federal or national level. How stable the state or the country is and how that either makes or break the environment and based on that the people living within the territory of the state sand the nations are likely to be engaged in criminal acts (Land, 2018). The aspect of politically unstable and areas that are always going through unrest, curfews and even political conflicts, the likelihood of criminal acts are most likely to be much more than it is in areas that have less political conflicts (Khudaykulov, 2021). The contribution of the environmental factors to the individual differences in a phenotype of interest is something that states how the antisocial behaviour is highly influenced. The determination of individual’s behaviour is also highly influenced by the interaction happening within that same environment (Jolliff and Farrington, 2018).

This aspect would further be clarified with one instance for example, If, one is growing up in an environment that puts values on the aspect of learning, education, or even professional achievements and all sorts of career drives, are less likely to focus on behaviours that are highly anti-social and criminal in nature (Johnson, 2019). However, that same scenario would be different with a. different environment for somebody who is growing up in an environment that does not put any values on learning or professional settlements and do not value academic pursuit, are most likely to perpetuate much more criminal tendencies or antisocial behaviours (Jeffery and Zahm, 2017). The aspect of social deviance and criminal behaviour is often the result of all these environmental factors such as the lack of interests in personal achievements, or lack of academic pursuits or even putting values on learning and knowing, something that plays a crucial role in the aspect of creating or at least perpetuating criminal behaviours (Jacques, 2019). One of the most relevant and most anthologised factors that falls under the environmental aspect is the element of socialisation amongst the children or kids while they are growing up (Hidayat, 2020). The period of childhood developments and how the concept of socialisation is implemented is one of the many aspects how the criminal behaviours are developed and how the people are able to abstain themselves form any sorts of criminal acts at all (Dargis and Koenigs, 2017).

Judgement capability between right and wrong in offender in the context of uxoricide

To understand how the psychological aspect of human mind could possibly control and in a way, help perpetuate the crimes or any sorts of criminal acts in the context of uxoricide (Casey, 2019). The aspect of distinguishing ability between what is right and what is wrong is often considered to be impaired in an offender’s mind based on all the manic-depressive attitudes, borderline personality disorders or even psychopathic personality (Berryessa, 2020). However, statistically shown that the offenders is this case is often minor impaired in term so the personality and that their capability to distinguish between what is right and what is wrong is not impaired and that they fully capable of judge the same under any circumstances (Beckley et al. 2018). With the developments of the psychopathic personality, the aspect of ability to judge such rational situations or making any cognitively logical decisions, are seen of the most apparent aspect of crimes, are often impaired. In the aspect of uxoricide, the concept of male killing his wife is developed from the simple “spouse jealousy” something that’s states the historical pattern of males being jealous and being driven by the societal beliefs of how women cannot be better or the developments of jealousy is most likely (Wilcox and Land, 2017). It is something that influences the aspect of indulging in the crimes, that is highly affected and influenced by the social classes and age variables and therefore it is often perpetuated with the aspect of impaired judgement in various ways (Tsang, 2018). The concept of uxoricide is often considered to be honour killing and therefore the aspect of preconceived notion or having a pre-existing idea that the wife is not able to live up to is what resulting in that situation, suggest the impairment in the male to have any credible judgements ability (Strauss-Hughes et al. 2019).

Relationship between poverty and crime

The concept of economic deprivation and crime is one of the most relevant aspect of criminology that is studies time and again to investigate and sort of have necessary findings on the aspect of how affective the aspect of economic deprivation is and how often that. affects the criminal actions (Papalia et al. 2020). The association of poverty with the disadvantages that one receives has a substantial effect on the increasing rate of crimes and poverty. The aspect of economic strain is found to be perpetuating social strain and disorganisation and it successfully perpetuates the aspect of criminal behaviours (Natarajan, 2017). The conception of high strain perspective and the associated poverty is something that leads to the high proportion of offenders, which is often perpetuated from the aspect of lack of money especially in a money-driven society (Moffitt, 2018). A society that solely outs values on the concept of financial gains and monetary achievements, put a massive strain and impact upon those who do not have it, resulting in increasing rate of negative and antisocial behavioural developments and high rates of criminal behaviours (Mallett and Schall, 2019). It is equally important to note that with the social strain as much as it develops the characteristics of the offenders, it also simultaneously due to the involvements of the poverty weakens the criminal opportunity by reducing the supply of targets, or any required resources in te society (Ling et al. 2019).

The positive correlation between the concept of crime and poverty has been statistically significant as it shows how the overall low-income levels, under the poverty line population, ow education levels or any sorts of economic strain or financial lacking are most likely to orchestrate the tendency to engage in criminal offences (Lee and Kim, 2020). What becomes the overall aspect of this theoretical understanding is that it has effects on both the victims and the offenders, as poverty is something based on which the interaction of victims and the offenders are most likely to happen (Land, 2018). Since poverty is capable to affect a society on psychological, cultural, political and even on social levels, it always leads that specific society towards an environment where the increased rate of crime and violence is most likely. This in a way, inhibits the country growth and it is overall developments and thus results in even worse scenario of poverty and social inequality of developments (Khudaykulov, 2021).

Criminal opportunity theory

The relationship between poverty and crime also establishes the theoretical understanding of criminal opportunity theory where the community’/s economic deprivation states the visible countervailing effects on crimes and while this strain and disorganisation allows the offenders to engage in crimes like that and continue to encourage them to continue with their criminal indulgences, it also further deteriorates the opportunities to engage crimes, since the countervailing affects reduces the worthwhile targets and its overall supply in that area (Jolliff and Farrington, 2018). The aspect of human rationality is therefore something that is considered by the criminal opportunity theory to be on the motivating factors criminal behaviour (Johnson, 2019). The elevated levels of crimes could be related to the higher levels of economic property as it always results in profitable targets that could possibly increase the aspect of profitable targets and elevate the rates of property crimes, only when the economic prosperity is not able to alleviate the criminogenic strain and social disorganisation. The increase of crime could possibly happen with the increasing rate if criminal opportunity but that only happens to a certain point (Jeffery and Zahm, 2017). Then two sides of the economic deprivation that the criminal opportunity theory states and reinforces and theory are that the economic deprivation increasing the criminal motivations, and the ability engage in criminal actions causing social strain and social disorganisation (Jacques, 2019). On the other hand, this social strain, deprivation and disorganisation also causes the profitable targets and the net gains from the victimisation to drastically increase and reducing the criminal opportunity (Hidayat, 2020).

The choices of the offenders according to the criminal opportunity theory is to choose the victims who would bring better net gains, and there will be high rewards with very little to no risk and efforts (Dargis and Koenigs, 2017). This opportunity is something that indulges the offenders to submerge in criminal acts and that is where the first countervailing effect is coming onto the effects. However, the aspect of opportunity is not always followed by criminal acts, is also something that criminal opportunity their gravely suggests (Casey, 2019). With the social deprivation and the economic strains, the aspect of criminal opportunity is also reducing since the gains and the worthwhile targets in that specific area is most likely to decrease and is most likely to create an aspect where both of these are happening simultaneously (Berryessa, 2020). The concept of opportunity is considered to be the determining factors that most likely to decide the environment’s prone to criminal offences or activities, where the offenders has little to no control over the environment and its conditions to carry more criminal opportunities and the conditions that the environment is most likely to permit is often preventable (Beckley et al. 2018).

Reference List

Beckley, A.L., Caspi, A., Arseneault, L., Barnes, J.C., Fisher, H.L., Harrington, H., Houts, R., Morgan, N., Odgers, C.L., Wertz, J. and Moffitt, T.E., 2018. The developmental nature of the victim-offender overlap. Journal of developmental and life-course criminology4(1), pp.24-49.

Berryessa, C.M., 2020. The effects of essentialist thinking toward biosocial risk factors for criminality and types of offending on lay punishment support. Behavioral Sciences & the Law38(4), pp.355-380.

Casey, S., 2019. Psychologically Relevant Theories of Crime and Offender Rehabilitation. The Wiley International Handbook of Correctional Psychology, pp.337-353.

Dargis, M. and Koenigs, M., 2017. Witnessing domestic violence during childhood is associated with psychopathic traits in adult male criminal offenders. Law and human behavior41(2), p.173.

Hidayat, T.A., 2020. Reform Against Criminal Corruption.

Jacques, S., 2019. Which Source Possesses the Most and Highest Quality Data on the Empirical Aspects of Criminal Events? A Theory of Opportunity and Necessary Conditions.

Jeffery, C.R. and Zahm, D.L., 2017. Crime prevention through environmental design, opportunity theory, and rational choice models. In Routine activity and rational choice (pp. 323-350). Routledge.

Johnson, S.A., 2019. Understanding the violent personality: Antisocial personality disorder, psychopathy, & sociopathy explored. Forensic Research & Criminology International Journal7(2), pp.76-88.

Jolliffe, D. and Farrington, D.P., 2018. Personality and other individual influences on offending. The Oxford handbook of developmental and life-course criminology, p.355.

Khudaykulov, F.K., 2021. Signs Of The Objective Side Of Crime In The Theory Of Criminal Law Belonging To The Romano-Germanic Legal Family: Theoretical And Practical Problems. The American Journal of Political Science Law and Criminology3(01), pp.57-62.

Land, K. ed., 2018. Criminal circumstance: A dynamic multi-contextual criminal opportunity theory. Routledge.

Lee, Y. and Kim, J., 2020. Psychopathic traits and different types of criminal behavior: An assessment of direct effects and mediating processes. Journal of Criminal Justice, p.101772.

Ling, S., Umbach, R. and Raine, A., 2019. Biological explanations of criminal behavior. Psychology, Crime & Law25(6), pp.626-640.

Mallett, X. and Schall, U., 2019. The psychological and physiological sequel of child maltreatment: A forensic perspective. Neurology, Psychiatry and Brain Research34, pp.9-12.

Moffitt, T.E., 2018. Male antisocial behaviour in adolescence and beyond. Nature Human Behaviour2(3), pp.177-186.

Natarajan, M. ed., 2017. Crime opportunity theories: Routine activity, rational choice and their variants. Routledge.

Papalia, N., Spivak, B., Daffern, M. and Ogloff, J.R., 2020. Are psychological treatments for adults with histories of violent offending associated with change in dynamic risk factors? A meta-analysis of intermediate treatment outcomes. Criminal justice and behavior47(12), pp.1585-1608.

Strauss-Hughes, A., Heffernan, R. and Ward, T., 2019. A cultural–ecological perspective on agency and offending behaviour. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law26(6), pp.938-958.

Tsang, S., 2018. Troubled or traumatized youth? The relations between psychopathy, violence exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder, and antisocial behavior among juvenile offenders. Journal of aggression, maltreatment & trauma27(2), pp.164-178.

Wilcox, P. and Land, K.C., 2017. Social disorganization and criminal opportunity. Challenging Criminological Theory: The Legacy of Ruth Rosner Kornhauser, p.237.


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