Assignment Questions on Advocacy



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Compassion Health and Social Care

What is compassion? And how did that change? In this assignment, empathy is defined and developed as a distinct affective experience with the primary goal of facilitating harmony and defense of the vulnerable and the suffering. Poor practice in health and social care makes a particular group of the population susceptible to being assaulted or hurt emotionally or physically. The importance of compassion within health and social care in consideration of vulnerable people is explored in the essay. Majorly, compassion is administered by healthcare and social care staff. In fact, in England, the Department of Health introduced the

6C’s (care, compassion, courage, communication, competence, and commitment) strategy due to several high-profile incidents of inadequate treatment in England, as well as questions over a lack of compassion and the need to refocus on principles. To reduce vulnerability, professionals use different techniques to assist affected individuals. Safeguarding, whistleblowing, the duty of candor, and advocacy are some of the methods that are applied. Professionals in the health and social care sector usually adhere to positive practices that may mitigate or reduce vulnerability by being accountable, responsible, advocating, the duty of care, and codes of conduct.


Compassion has a wide range of meanings when it “arouses various feelings such as kindness, altruism, solidarity, hospitality, accompaniment, and solace, among others.” But, when a patient unmistakably feels sincere, sympathy and can be faked. That is not the same as condescension, pity, or paternalism. Compassion, which is more potent than empathy, is the awareness and comprehension of another’s pain and the ability to relieve, reduce, or eradicate the suffering. It is the product of the integration of many somatic, affective, emotional, attentional, and embodied systems, all of which can be learned. This mechanism is focused on mutual, reciprocal, and asymmetric interdependence. Compassion cannot occur in the absence of a combination of focus and love. It necessitates altruistic motivation and an understanding of the difference between self and others (Perez-Bret et al. 2016, p.601).

Sympathy refers to a person’s emotions, regardless of what causes them. Compassion encompasses a more deep sympathy as a result of the other person’s suffering or challenge. Compassion is described as a characteristic that combines active concern for another’s wellbeing with an inventive consciousness and emotional reaction of deep sympathy, distress, and tenderness at another one suffering or misfortune. It is predicated on compassion, contains affinities of mercy, manifested in actions of goodwill intended to relieve the misery or distress of the other individual. Empathy is the creative transposition of oneself into someone else’s mind, feelings, and behavior, and thereby structuring the universe as he does. Whereas ’empathy’ corresponds to either a surface into,’ or involvement in another one end psychic processes, sympathy applies to one’s sense of not just engaging in another one’s emotional experience, but also of feeling together with, or an intentional experiential exchange wherein the observer is impacted and reacts with compassion or sorrow.

Empathy differs from sympathy in that it refers to a vicarious perception of another’s feelings (Perez-Bret et al., 2016, p.604). Empathy is prevalent everywhere humans seek to establish more just and caring social systems, and fostering empathy are essential for becoming a successful social worker. When misused, the consequences can range from ineffective outreach to emotional and physical exhaustion (Gerdes 2011). Compassion is recognized as a significant component of high-quality patient treatment. Compassion is often confused with concern and empathy, one of the philosophical dilemmas in the health care domain (Sinclair et al., 2017). According to Sinclair et al. (2017), Although empathy is often regarded as a virtue and a necessary skill in modern health care, the relationship between empathy and compassion is more complicated. Empathic interventions that frequently cause excitement in the health care professional and intense emotions for the particular patient run the risk of being unprofessional and leading to emotional exhaustion or fatigue. In the empathy process, sympathy can be encoded into other forms of interacting with and for the individual. This interpretation of empathy is critical in healthcare care and other professions that work with troubled people. Compassion is an emotional mechanism that involves noticing, sensing, sense-making, and behaving to relieve another person’s pain. When someone becomes sick, they become more helpless and may need help from others, even for the most trivial tasks; they need to be handled with care and compassion in these cases. Care seeks to offer companionship for the patient’s good life through closeness, intimacy, and respect for information, active listening, and sensitive response. In this regard, state that caring entails recognizing another person’s vulnerability, having an emotional response to it, and positively behaving for them for people (Goetz et al. 2010, p.354).

More modern evolutionary treatments of sympathy provide three lines of the rationale for the advent of an effective society geared toward improving the health of those who suffer. According to this logic, sympathy originated as a unique, effective response and characteristic. It improves the health of helpless offspring. It is a beneficial emotion or quality in the mate selection procedure, and it allows cooperative relationships with non-kin. Compassion is believed to have arisen as an effective caregiving strategy intended to help the vulnerable offspring reach that age of viability in weak offspring argument. Human offspring are born earlier and are therefore more dependent than those of any other animal,

necessitating unparalleled treatment if they are to achieve the age of maturity and reproductive activity.

Caregiving and caring attitudes have been consistently observed in isolated, preindustrial societies residing in human beings’ evolution’s social environments ((Goetz et al. 2010, p.354). according to Sraughair (2012), compassion’s origins may be traced back to theological philosophies. Christianity was the dominant faith in nineteenth-century Great Britain, and scripture taught that adherents should always be charitable in their deeds and acts. Compassion has recently attracted a lot of attention in the healthcare sector, with concerns expressed about its absence during patient interactions. To have and indulge in human connections with patients and families, health practitioners must be in the right atmosphere ( Tierney, Bivins, & Seers 2019). As a result, while compassionate care has been described as a simple remedy when medical services are in turmoil, the debate, particularly in policymaking, has failed to address the systemic problems that come with its provision. Due to a lack of awareness, ‘compassion’ is presented as cheap and solely the duty of individual nurses.


Vulnerability is widely used as daily language and is often used by educators, policymakers, writers, social workers, and local governments. It is described as the quality and state of being susceptible or prone to being assaulted or hurt, either emotionally or physically. The sensation of vulnerability causes stress and distress, which affects physiological, neurological, and social functioning. While everybody is vulnerable at

various points in their lives, some people are much more likely than anyone else to have health issues. Personal characteristics, as well as environmental factors, influence vulnerability. Trends in culture suggest that a growing number of poor individuals would place more strain on an increasingly overburdened healthcare system. Vulnerable people are at risk of suffering from impaired psychological, physical, or social wellbeing (Rogers 1997, p.65).

Factors Contributing to Vulnerability in Social and Healthcare Services Age, Gender, and Population GrowthAge are determinants of vulnerability. Children and infants are regarded as very insecure since they are typically entirely reliant on someone else for their treatment. Furthermore, they are powerless to advocate for their interests. Adolescents are more likely to partake in risk-taking behavior and, as a result, are much more likely to engage in collisions (  and point also experiment with substances such as alcohol and drugs (Gardner & Steinberg 2005). Elderly individuals are much more vulnerable when their physical capacities deteriorate since they often have less financial and social care services. Men undertake more crimes and have a higher homicide rate, whereas women face much more stressors because of child-bearing, child-rearing, and caregiving positions (Rogers 1997, p.66). Domestic disputes are more liable to exacerbate eating disorders, depression, and accidents in women. Social vulnerability is described as a community’s susceptibility to the effects of natural disasters, which affects its ability or stability to retrieve from the impact. As a measure of group insecurity, rapid demographic growth also leads to increased social vulnerability (Siagian et al., 2014, p.1612). ).

Vulnerability is determined using different criteria. Exposure is assessed by examining the physical, social, economic, and environmental factors (Brooks, Adger & Kelly 2005). The ability of an individual to withstand, deal with, and survive from hazards is used to assess their vulnerability. The elderly are often perceived as a dependent group in society. However, old age should not be used as a criterion for evaluating vulnerability. Aging is a phase that exhibits itself in many areas and is not inherently connected to a sense of openness. When it comes to defining a vulnerable group, history is no longer sufficient. Age cannot be used to ascertain how old someone is. Even in old age, living a balanced lifestyle makes one solid and healthy. Being sixty years old or older does not signify that you are deficient in any way. Older adults do not become helpless all of a sudden. However, loneliness and social isolation are shared among the elderly.

Social Support

According to research. Good health is associated with commitment and satisfying interactions with others. A social network also provides instrumental aid like child care, financial resources, and shelter, but it is also a primary source of emotional support. Among the most powerful markers of an individual’s weakness is his or her amount of social care (Rogers 1997, p.66).

Education and Income

Another factor influencing risk is education. People with higher levels of education are more likely to use the healthcare system and practice preventive medicine. Women with such a higher degree of education are more likely to get maternal treatment and, as a result, have healthy babies. Low-income levels are related to enhanced rates of violence, crime rate increase, drug use increase, and increased adolescent pregnancy rates. According to Canadian research, those that do not earn enough income to support ends meet are the ones who are the most prone to injury, severe disease, or premature death. Bad health in one factor (psychological, physical, or social) often leads to issues in others (Rogers 1997, p.66).

Personal components


Each individual has personal factors that interfere with the environment to affect health. These traits of the woman may be either born with or inherited, based on assessing her individual properties. Temperament inherited predisposition to disease, resistance to infection, or chemical imbalances are all inborn characteristics that influence wellbeing. Trauma, illnesses, lifestyle choices, and mastered qualities like coping skills are acquired characteristics. Either genetic or acquired factors influence an individual ability to react to stress. It has been proposed that an individual’s constitutional equipment (inherent characteristics) defines a threshold of weakness. The lobby is unique to each person. Where the point of risk is crossed, the individual is more likely to become sick (Rogers 1997, p.67).

In healthcare, social support is known as an essential aspect of solid relationships and psychological wellbeing. Peer interaction is not a one-way street, and patients must rely on one another for support. Coping with crises or tragedies necessitates people hanging on their family and friends for help. Inadequate social support has been associated with depressive symptoms and social isolation (Xu & Chi 2013). Social support can take many forms, including cognitive, technical, and intellectual. Getting social support decreases psychological distress over a variety of issues.

Healthcare providers are required to show compassion regardless of a person’s educational and income levels. Education and income should not be used as grounds for determining who to show kindness or not. Everyone seeking healthcare should be treated equally and access quality treatment with understanding.

Individual components affect how one individual reacts to things. Different people respond differently because of subjective elements. In healthcare, other patients come to seek medical assistance. Understanding the unique component of the patient will be instrumental in knowing how and when to express compassion. Health care workers are trained to address different situations according to the seriousness it requires.

Policy Drivers

In general, values are classified as beliefs or ideals that affect behavior. Values embody fundamental ideas on what is correct, sound, or ideal, and they inspire both professional and social conduct. The 6C’s were published in 2012 due to poor care quality with lack of compassion. They represent care, courage, compassion, communication, commitment, and competence. They were to strengthen the quality of care by addressing high-profile care problems in England. NHS England incorporated the 6Cs into the current nursing system in 2016 (Baillie 2017, p.558).


While care is described as a different value in the 6Cs, caregivers cannot deliver successful care without compassion, integrity, empathy, bravery, and determination. Individuals who work in the health and social care field provide services to families, populations, and persons of all ages, intending to meet each individual’s needs regularly. Individualized treatment can consider medical, social, psychological, and moral conditions, with personalized clinical care focusing on caring for the service user as a whole instead of in isolated pieces. Health care is a professional, secure, high-quality, humane, holistic, individualized, inclusive, interpersonal caring approach that is structured and built based on the best available data resulting in good patient performance, wellbeing optimization, symptom palliation, or even a peaceful death. This reduces the vulnerability (Baillie 2017, p.559).


Compassion is the delivery of care through partnerships founded on empathy, reverence, and dignity. Furthermore, it is also called intelligent compassion, although it is fundamental to how people view their care. The consequences are that even as nurses demonstrate kindness and give assistance to people, they must guarantee that their decisions are skillful and guided by the best facts—the emotion evoked by seeing another person’s pain, which motivates a corresponding impulse to assist. Only compassion motivates and empowers individuals to recognize and act to alleviate or remove another’s distress or discomfort. A health and social care professional cannot express sympathy if they do not recognize a person’s grief, emphasizing the importance of empathy or competent evaluation abilities, such as identifying discomfort while patients have speech problems. Analysis of compassion in the interaction between older people and health care professionals with chronic diseases demonstrated the emotional essence and complexities of compassion, defining seven dimensions: listening, attentiveness, confronting, commitment, helping, engagement, and awareness (Baillie 2017, p.560).


Competence ensures that all of those in caring positions must be able to consider an individual’s health and social needs and have the skills, scientific and professional experience, to provide appropriate diagnosis and treatments based on science and facts. Competence is often used in nursing and is often understood as referring to professional efficiency. According to one report, competent nurses were capable of performing conscious and deliberate preparation and prioritizing and coordinating their tasks. Still, they lacked the resilience and pace of proficient nurses. The ability to adapt adequately to the requirements of

one’s professional obligations through expertise, judgment, qualifications, attention, experience, and inspiration (Baillie 2017, p.560).


Cultural competence can also be included, with health care professionals delivering treatment in a culturally suitable manner for each individual and their families. Communication is essential for healthy, loving relationships and good teamwork. Listening is as critical as what they say and then do, but it is required for there to be “no judgment about me without me.” Communication is the secret to a good environment that serves both people in our care and those that work there. Successful communication is critical in health care and clinical practice. However, there is an excellent knowledge base on how to communicate efficiently using verbal and nonverbal skills. Many individuals seeking health care services have communication problems, which may be due to physical and mental health problems or a developmental disorder. Fear and anxiety can also impair an individual’s ability to communicate. Health and social care professionals must learn to engage successfully with families and patients in various conditions, such as describing treatment, conveying unexpected news, delivering comfort, doing an appraisal, and through discharge preparation (Baillie 2017, p.561).


Courage allows people to do the best thing for those we care about, stand out if we are concerned, or have the inner courage and imagination to develop and embrace modern ways of functioning. Courage has also been recognized as an essential human characteristic since at least Aristotle’s time. Courage is necessary for health and social care practice; for instance, in

safeguarding vulnerable people, raising questions about the quality of treatment, questioning established procedures, and implementing reform (Baillie 2017, p.561).


Commitment to patients and communities is central to everything they do. Healthcare workers and social care workers need to draw on their dedication to improving patient safety and experience, to take steps to make this mission and policy reality for everyone, and to face the upcoming health, care, and support problems. The concept of commitment is demonstrating a contribution to developing treatment or social life experiences (Baillie 2017, p.561).

The 6Cs, on the other hand, have been well known in England as a value base for health and social care workers, resonating with those within these careers and beyond. The principles described in the 6Cs are unquestionably vital. As professions, they will benefit from the broad body of scholarly work and a previous study on treatment and ethics that investigate these principles in greater detail (Baillie 2017, p.561).

Race and Ethnicity in Health and Social Care

In health and social care, there should be no discrimination based on race. Race and ethnicity are cultural constructs that can be degrading (Campinha-Bacote 1999). Race inequalities in health and social care are the driving force behind policy development and implementation. The policy is intended to support racial and ethnic diversity in health and social care. Staffing, development, and permanent job opportunities would be de-biased as a result of the policy. There are persistent socioeconomic inequities in health and access to health and social services. The race equity initiative is intended to encourage fairness, socially and physically healthy workplaces. The causes, effects, and responses to race disparity are all interrelated.

Sex, class, socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, and disability, among other factors, influence people’s health and social care experiences and needs (Feinstein 1993). Health and social care workers from racial and ethnic minorities are overrepresented in low-wage positions. If workers believe the working environment is both mentally and physically secure, attempts to improve workplace racial and ethnic diversity in terms of employee advancement and senior-level representation can have a long-term effect. When conducting health and social care tasks, administrators should understand the capacity and skills of individual health workers to illustrate and promote an inclusive community.

Providing psychological protection at work entails creating an environment where employees feel empowered and free to speak up about problems at work, challenge decisions, and voice concerns (Milken et al., 2015). Healthcare providers who feel secure in their workplace are more likely to show compassion to their patients. Healthcare workers’ mental wellbeing is impacted by unsatisfactory workplaces, making it impossible to demonstrate concern to patients.

How Professionals Challenge Poor Practice in Health and Social Care Safeguarding

Safeguarding issues in public health research differ based on various variables, such as the scope and emphasis of study, including physical and psychological violence, misuse, and neglect, in addition to sexual abuse and exploitation. Several groups in society are vulnerable; hence they need to be safeguarded. Different methods of safeguarding are used. Any deliberate breach of Good Clinical Practices (GCP) with implications for liberty, distributive justice, voluntariness, or other parameters of protections must be thoroughly investigated, and those responsible must be penalized appropriately by the relevant authority.

Any deliberate breach of Good Clinical Practices (GCP) with implications for liberty, distributive justice, voluntariness, or other parameters of protections must be thoroughly investigated, and those responsible must be penalized appropriately by the relevant authority. The ethical review board’s prerogatives include protecting privileges, wellbeing, or safety by risk-benefit scale calculations, the confidentiality and privacy of sensitive subjects, and the establishment of appended protections (Shivayogi 2013, p.55).

Moreover, Assimilation of the intervention’s protection and effectiveness profiles from accessible preclinical, clinical, or post-marketing experiences is the normal progression ensuring a detailed assessment of identified hazards versus benefits before the incorporation of this community. The industry should adhere to strict monitoring requirements to preserve validated datasets for safety data distribution highlighted for such a group, with dangers being routinely evaluated by steering committees, expert clinical evaluators, and timely advice exchanged by stakeholders (Shivayogi 2013, p.55). All these methods are used to safeguard the vulnerable population in the community.

Policy implementation entails putting the health and social care priorities and strategies into effect. Policy enactment does not guarantee policy progress. Strategic planning filled the difference between actual outcomes and desired outcomes. Bad health practices are an initial condition that necessitates policy implementation to achieve the desired result: good practice. The policy implementation process should evolve in response to changes in health and social care.

Whistle Blowing and Duty of Candour and advocacy


Whenever a staff member reveals information or behavior that is considered immoral and otherwise likely to experience injury, and action may mitigate potential damage, this is referred to as whistleblowing. It is not a straightforward decision to blow the whistle. The responsibility of candor requires workers to be frank with patients and families whenever an untoward event for that they are responsible involves physical or “prolonged psychological” injury or death (Mannion et al., 2018). Reference, Most people, want to be welcomed by their coworkers, so they adhere to community norms and do not question authority. The responsibility of candor may help to change the NHS’s conventional aggressive approach to whistleblowers.

Changing the institutional culture as well as behaviors, on the other hand, is typically sluggish. Bottom-up and top-down approaches are expected, such as enabling the most of a “new pair of eyes” and assisting workers in understanding the legal basis of accountability within a health care system (Hilton 2016,p.329). Professionals use the practices to mitigate some poor practices both in the healthcare and social care sector. People are more likely to make protected disclosures if the atmosphere is more responsive (Joinson et al. 2008). If there is a culture of openness, then whistleblowing would become more popular. When it comes to communicating the knowledge they have, whistleblowers will be handled with respect and compassion. Every healthcare facility should vigorously promote a safe culture. Raising questions should be a natural part of life, and the right to communicate should be protected.


. How Professionals in Health and Social Care Adhere to Positive Practice

Many health and social care workers uphold high levels of integrity, even in demanding and difficult situations. However, literature exposes cases in which individual professionals and administrators, and whole organizations struggle to behave legally, ethically, and prudently.


Improved transparency is often mentioned as a component of enhancing healthcare system efficiency. At first sight, the concept of increased transparency seems simple, but it is much nuanced. Accountability is the duty of entities or organizations to offer facts about and justify their conduct to other parties and the imposition of penalties for failure to cooperate and participate in responsible action. Accountability for performance applies to showing and paying for an account about agreed-upon performance goals. Their focus is on the resources, outputs, and outcomes of public organizations and programs at the healthcare system level rather than on actual patient-provider experiences. For instance, provider payment structures that optimize productivity, quality of service, equity, and customer loyalty necessitate robust financial and management information systems capable of producing both financial and performance data.

Healthcare system performance transparency is related to financial accountability except that the financial resources to be compensated for are expected to deliver products, programs, and incentives for people. Still, it differs in that the focus of financial accountability is mostly on procedural enforcement, while performance accountability is primarily concerned with outcomes. Political transparency frequently refers to fostering citizen confidence in the government’s adherence to agreed-upon values of integrity, honesty, ethics, and professional obligation. (Brinkerhoff 2004, p.374). This will improve the compassion of health and social care workers towards their tasks. Health and social care are possible in healthcare institutions that practice accountability. Accountability increases the trust of patients in terms of maintenance. healthcare providers have portrayed effectiveness in management and trustworthiness in using funds resourcefully

Codes of Conduct

Professional values are the primary requirements of any technical group. These principles are regarded as the guideline and inspiration for ethical conduct for members of a particular discipline. Professional principles are action criteria that are agreed upon by professional associations and people, and they are used to assess the credibility of a person or agency. Accordingly, the most significant ethical standards are upholding client privacy, protecting patients’ privacy rights, taking any responsibility for serving the health care needs of any culturally diverse society, or accepting responsibility, including transparency with their work (Poorchangizi et al.2017, p.2). A positive relationship between work experience and professional values indicates that professionals have compassion for their work.


Personnel in healthcare management play an essential part throughout the provision and planning of services, the mitigation of adverse effects, and the optimization of healthcare effectiveness and patient outcomes. They have a clinical responsibility to assess, track, and report on the suitability and efficacy of treatment to inform progress in healthcare quality. Health and social care roles in healthcare quality go beyond providing safe treatment consistent with the most critical information and professional practices to participating in more significant organizational and system quality or protection systems. Healthcare regulations also develop codes of conduct, practice guidelines, or clinical competencies. Health care practitioners who recognize their quality commitments comply with the nursing strategies and behaviors expressed in the practice guidelines derived from sustaining and increasing healthcare quality (Oldland et al.2020, p.151). This implies that healthcare givers who know their profession well do their job with care and compassion.


Health care professionals can campaign for progressive programs that foster justice, dignity, and health equality, by targeting insufficient social and material services – also known as social determinants of health (SODH – the right public policy policies and interventions will break the cycle of vulnerability, disadvantage, and ill health). SODH is needed for good health as well as a long lifespan. Whenever a healthcare professional prescribes diabetes medicine to someone who cannot afford to eat healthy food or exercise in a clean, walkable area, the professional performs a downstream rescue. Developing as proactive social policy champions to fix SDOH is how health care professionals maneuver upstream to discover why patients, households, and whole populations wind up in the water. According to the social justice angle, the most significant effects on families and culture as a whole are made upstream by fixing the environmental and social problems that lead to a diabetes diagnosis during the first place. An increasing and comprehensive body of research links policy decisions in four primary social spheres to improved wellbeing and reduced health inequities. These dimensions are schooling and advancement for children and youth, equal jobs and good work, social security, and the living environment. Social policies have a more significant effect on wellbeing than genetic predisposition, human habits, or availability of healthcare facilities.

Health and social care professionals who want to help can start by learning about the internal and external collaborations available to solve problems like housing instability, food shortages, and transportation needs. It is essential to ascertain how/if social needs are met in the general strategic strategy of the organization (Williams et al., 2018, n.p).

Respecting and responding to a patient’s preferences, needs, and values is part of patient-centered care ( Epstein & Street 2011). To provide patient-centered care, healthcare providers need to ensure that all clinical decisions are based on the patient’s values. To deliver patient-centered care, patients and healthcare providers must form a relationship. Highly personalized care is included in patient-centered treatments to ensure that patients receive the best possible care. Coordination, cohesion, and connectivity are essential aspects of patient-centered care (Meyers et al., 2010). The appropriate treatment is given at the proper time and the proper place. Patient satisfaction scores, as well as increased morale and efficiency, would favor healthcare providers.


Compassion has long had a thorny place in the study of feeling. It has been largely overlooked in emotion taxonomies. Where it has been considered, it has been classified as empathic pain or as a subtype or combination of depression and affection. It emerges as an empathic approach to pain, as a rational mechanism that seeks patients’ wellbeing, ethical acts aimed at alleviating their suffering. Caregiving and caring attitudes have been consistently observed in isolated, preindustrial societies residing in human beings’ social environments. Vulnerable people are at risk of suffering from impaired psychological, physical, or social wellbeing. The sensation of vulnerability causes stress and distress, which affects physiological, neurological, and social functioning.

Different factors contribute to vulnerability in social and healthcare services, such as age, gender, population growth, social support, education, and income. Health and social care professionals use different safeguarding, whistleblowing, and sincerity methods to challenge the poor practices that affect the vulnerable population. For such to happen, the professionals need to be efficient and effective to deliver on their jobs. Many health and social care workers uphold high levels of integrity, even in demanding and difficult situations. They

make sure they are accountable, positive codes of conduct, responsible, and have advocacy. Social policies have a more significant effect on wellbeing and healthcare outcomes than genetic predisposition, human habits, or availability of healthcare facilities. These practices enhance compassion among vulnerable people in both the health and social care sector.














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