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Causes of Addiction












Causes of Addiction










Methodology Analysis &


Conclusions Implications for

Future research


For practice

Han, S. G., & Kim, D. T. (2019) Phenomenological research theory was used to understand the participant’s everyday experience of the concept (smartphones) What are the causes of addiction among addicted adolescents to smartphones?

Substantial factors are leading to the addiction of adolescents to smartphones.

The study used Colaizzi’s phenomenological study method in the analysis of the cause’s addictions.  The method includes the use of seven steps in its analysis. The steps include; reading the contents of the interviews, extraction of significant statements, formulation of meanings, organization of the collected meanings into themes clusters, and integrating cluster themes into an exhaustion description.  The study confirmed more than 60 constructive meanings in the meaningful data expressed in the participants. Such outcome was based on 26 subjects, eight subject groups, and two categories. The study concluded that the causes of addiction among adolescents were psychological, behavioral habit factors, internet smartphone factors, and social relation factors. The study recommended future supplementation of the quantitative research via the qualitative research and participants to get the core of the experience; addiction to smartphones. Nurses should creatively understand the causes of addiction in teens with smartphones to apply the appropriate therapeutic interventions.
Alvarez, S. Q., Gomes, G. C., & Xavier, D. M. (2014)




The article uses a descriptive study of the qualitative approach method to describe the phenomenon and the features related to the effects of drug use on the users and their families. The authors also included thematic analysis in the examination of the participant’s interviews. What are the causes and consequences of drug use for the users and the family?

There are significant causes and consequences of the use of drugs on the users and their families.

 The authors collected their data using semi-structured recorded interviews. The participants included ten drug users and ten family members from the psychosocial care center in southern Brazil. Using the thematic analysis method, the authors evaluated the interviews with the drug users and the families. The results of the study indicated that there several causes for the use of drugs by users, there are consequences for abusing drugs among the users and

Their families.

For appropriate intervention among the drug users, it’s important to understand the causes of addictions and their effects on the user and their relatives. The article recommended future investigation of ways of countering addiction and neutralizing any adverse effects on the families. The study acts as a strong foundation of knowledge for nurses to integrate into their practices in dealing with addiction patients.
Jagannarayan, N., & Hegde, I. (2020) The study used the social learning theory that helped the authors identify the different behaviors that led to internet addiction among the Mumbai city youths. What are the different causes of addiction among the Mumbai City youngster?

There are several causes of addiction among the young Mumbai city population.

The authors used a purposive sampling method for the primary data collection from the adolescent kids less than fifteen and not more than twenty-one years. The study involved the administration of 100 questionnaires that, after sampling, were narrowed down to 73. The authors structure the questions based on the financial freedom of the respondents, the demographic and socio-psychological profile of respondents. The article used the descriptive technique frequency in the analysis of the collected data. The study concluded on family-related factors such as having parents who abused drugs. Additionally, the study found the prompting factors to consuming psychoactive substances such as being ideal, offer from friends, and high probability of lack of knowledge on the impacts of substance abuse. The study concludes that most of the teens involved with substance abuse are a result of curiosity. Additionally, the teens have indicated to grow a positive attitude towards the drugs and develop different new emotions and experiences. This trend continues until their parents know and they aren’t able to stop. The study recommends for parents to talk to their kids about substance abuse. The parents should also create positive environments where the kids feel safe and comfortable talking about their addictions. Healthcare professionals can use this information in understanding the various causes of drug abuse and apply the appropriate treatment in helping the patients.
Baturay, M. H., & Toker, S. (2019) The contingency theory was used in this study. This theory was relevant in its effort to inspire researchers to understand the topic based on the causes and the influence on the participants. What are the causes and effects of internet addiction among most college students?

There are several identified causes and effects of the internet among college students.

The study collected its data via several instruments confirmed viable by previous studies. However, in its analysis of the collected data, the study used the structured equation of modeling. The author also utilized the correlations study methods in the measurement of its variables. There are 159 undergraduate students involved in the study. The study results were that the several causes of internet addiction were addictions to games, bad relationships with families, friends, and professors, neglect of their everyday chores, and interference of sleep patterns. The study also identified various effects of internet addiction as decreased self-esteem, confidence, and self-efficacy. Also, such students registered low grades. The study concluded that addiction among college students causes harmful effects on the academic, socio-behavioral, and psychological aspects of their lives. This current study is essential for future studies in providing more systematic, comprehensive, and theory-based experiential causation through structural equation models. The study is essential in helping healthcare professionals in diagnosing internet addictions among their patients. Also, the study will help nurses in creating awareness of the potential effects of socio-psychological consequences related to internet addiction.
Kapahi, A., Ling, C. S., Ramadass, S., & Abdullah, N. (2013). The study used the psychodynamic theory to identify the behaviors and feelings of Mumbai people that led to their internet addiction. What are the causes and effects of internet addiction in Malaysia? There are numerous causes and effects of internet addiction among the youth in the state of Malaysia.


The study used an online survey in understanding internet addiction among the youth in Malaysia. A well-structured questionnaire was create based on an internet addiction test in the collection of data. Also, the questionnaire was based on demographic information, factors affecting internet addiction, internet surfing addiction, and the impact of internet addiction. The study identified several factors that caused internet addiction, such as task-relevant factors, motive and ease of access, impulsive surfing, and family convenience. Several factors were identified as the effects of internet addiction, such as insomnia, physical changes, loss of productivity, and withdrawal syndrome. The study concluded that internet addiction among Malaysian youth is quite high, especially among children between 18-25 years. The study also concluded that university students are more vulnerable to internet addiction. The findings of the study would act as a preliminary basis for future researches. Due to the limitation of this study, such as the diverse culture in Malaysia, this study recommends future studies to push their hypothesis boundaries. The study is essential for nurses in providing them with relevant knowledge necessary for helping the addicts in recovery. The psychologist can also use the study information in deducing appropriate intervention plans.
Pepino, M. Y., Stein, R. I., Eagon, J. C., & Klein, S. (2014)   What is the effect of induction of bariatric surgery-induced weight on food addiction in extreme obesity?

The effect of bariatric surgery-induced weight loss on food addiction in extreme addition.

The study used forty-four obese participants, with a BMI of 48 ± 8kg/m2. The participants were studied before and after ~ 20% weight loss after the induction of the bariatric surgery. The study also evaluated the food cravings among the participants, Yale food addiction, and emotional, restrictive, and external eating behaviors. The study results were that 32% of participants were identified with FA. However, the participants with FA recorded higher food cravings and higher scores of emotional and external eating disorders. The induction of the bariatric surgery of the FA participants resulted in a decrease in food cravings. The study concluded that the induction of Bariatric surgery reduces the Yale food addiction rate and improves the several eating behaviors associated with FA. The study recommends for future studies to determine the mechanism necessary for FA remission. Also, future studies should determine if the presence of FA affects the weight loss efficacy of bariatric surgery. The study can help doctors determine the level of FA in their patients before the initiation of bariatric surgery. The study can also be helpful to nurses in analyzing the physical and emotional changes among their patients.
Young, K. (2009) The study used the systems theory to analyze the daily youth behaviors that led to them being prone to online gaming addiction. What are some of the causes of online gaming addiction among youth and the relevant treatments?

There are several causes of online gaming addiction among the adolescent and treatment plans.

The study utilized well-structured questionaries’ which included questions based on the factors leading to online gaming addiction and the participant demographic and socio-economical profiles. Additionally, the study also incorporated interviews about adolescents who have been addicted to online gaming. The study results were that several factors led to the increased online gaming addiction among adolescents. Such factors included access to the internet from their homes, availability of free time, negligence of their daily chores, and influence from friends. The most effective treatment plan deduced by this study is therapy, where the adolescents are taught a life away from their games. The study concluded that parents should stay attentive to possible warning signs of online gaming addictions from their children. The parents should also be aware of the addiction issues and behaviors involved with gaming addiction. They can stay informed by researching or joining programs aim at creating addiction awareness. The study’s future recommendation was that future researchers should try and find ways of combating online gaming among adolescents. Considering the socio-psychological effects of online gaming addictions, parents need to be aware of better addressing the issue. Psychiatrists in most addiction recovery programs, facilities, and hospitals can use this study in developing interventions appropriate for helping them fight their addiction. Through such treatment plans and goals, the victims find a purpose and work towards turning their lives around.
Kuss, D. J., & Griffiths, M. D. (2012) The study used the cognitive-behavioral theory in understanding the relationship between online gaming addiction and substance abuse addiction. Does excessive online gaming lead to commonly experience symptoms of substance abuse?

Excessive online gaming can lead to commonly experienced symptoms of substance abuse.

The study used a literature review in the collection of its data. The first aim was to present the classification basis of online gaming addiction using official mental disorder frameworks—the second aimed at identifying empirical studies that assess online gaming addiction in children and adolescents. The last aim was to present and evaluate the findings against the background of related mental disorder criteria. Empirical evidence comprising 30 studies indicates that gaming addiction exists for some adolescents. As the addiction develops, online gaming addicts spend increasing amounts of time preparing for,  organizing,  and gaming. Evidence suggests that problematic online gaming can be conceptualized as a behavioral addiction rather than an impulse control disorder. The study’s future recommendation call for future studies to use this study as a basis in the broadening of their studies. The study recommends that future research identify the relationship between online gaming addiction and substance abuse addiction. The study can be quite helpful for nurses and social workers in helping both substance abuse and online gaming addicts in the process of their recovery. However, social workers can also use this study in creating awareness about online gaming addiction.
Amosun, P. A., Ige, O. A., & Ajala, O. A. (2010) The study used the family life cycle theory. What are the causative factors leading to substance abuse among secondary school students in Ibadan, Nigeria?

The causative factors leading to substance abuse among the secondary school students in Ibadan, Nigeria.

The study followed a descriptive format while incorporating a survey method. The study involved four hundred and eighty, and a self-designed adolescent drug habit inventory was used to collect data. The study results demonstrated a significant difference in the involvement of males and females in substance abuse. Additionally, there was a significant difference in the involvement of junior and senior students in substance abuse. There were no substantial differences in the causes of substance abuse among the Christian and Muslim students. The study concluded that males and females have different reasons such as the stimulation of the brain, inability to cope with realities of life, and shyness that led to substance abuse. The juniors and seniors demonstrated diverse reasons for the involvement in substance abuse. Despite the numerous previous research on the causative factors leading to substance abuse, none can state the specific factors with confidence. Therefore the study recommends that future studies engage in extensive research that exposed the definite causes of substance abuse among secondary school students in Nigeria. The article is quite essential for social workers to create awareness among secondary school students on the few factors that may lead to substance abuse.
Oser, C. B., Biebel, E. P., Pullen, E., & Harp, K. L. H. (2013 The study used the grounded theory. What are the causes, consequences, and prevention of burnout among substance abuse treatment counselors in rural and urban areas?

There are several causes, consequences, and prevention measures for burnout among substance abuse counselors in rural and urban areas.

The study collected its data from twenty-eight substance abuse counselors’ participants. The study developed to gather in-depth, qualitative data on

the factors impacting client behavioral treatment outcomes

from a provider perspective on a variety of topics, including

counselor characteristics, burnout, views of medication-assisted

treatment and other innovative treatment technique

The study results indicated the three main burnout themes that emerged from the

focus groups were causes, consequences, and prevention of

Burnout. However, the subthemes of the causes, consequences,

and prevention of burnout did differ based on

Rural versus urban locale.

The study concluded that the substance abuse treatment counselors in rural and urban. The causes, consequences, and prevention among the rural and urban substance abuse counselors don’t differ significantly as the clients exhibit almost similar features. This only research provides a preliminary, qualitative

foray into substance abuse counselors’ perceptions

of burnout and its impact on client outcomes in rural

and urban contexts. Future research efforts should continue

to investigate the differences between rural and urban counselors, as mounting evidence, including this

the study suggests that the context in which substance

Abuse counselors have located matters in important ways.

Despite the counselors being the healthcare providers in helping addicts recover, they also need care due to the identified effects of burnout. Therefore, facility management needs to use this study to identify the various factors that lead to burnout and avoid poor staff quality.
Hamed Rezakhani Moghadam, Davood Shojaeizadeh, Behnam Lashkarara, Hossein Safari, Mohammad Taghi Savadpour, & Razzaq Sohbatzadeh, (2013) The study used the humanistic theory. What is the comparison between substance abuse and its related factors among the University of Tehran and Tehran University of Medical Sciences? There is a relative comparison between substance abuse among the University of Tehran and Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The study incorporated the cross-sectional method. The study involved 489 students of Tehran University, and 488 students of Tehran University of Medical Science were selected through stratified cluster sampling. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. Collected data were analyzed by SPSS software version 18 using chi-square test, regression, and Student AWT_QUOTE__s t-test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. The study results found out that the prevalence of drug abuse in students was 33% at Tehran University of Medical Science and was 37.5% at the University of Tehran. The study also identified that In both universities, there was a statistically significant relationship between drug abuse and gender, religious beliefs, and family history of substance use. Regarding the role of universities as the centers of training and educating, the study proposed for health education to conduct programs for the prevention of substance abuse in high schools. These preventive programs should be continued at universities. However, the study recommended for future studies to use this study to continue identifying the specific ways of curbing substance abuse and addiction among the young population. The study offers a platform for social workers and nurses to learn how to identify the various similarities of substance abuse and addiction among highs school and university students aimed at helping them.
Ramo, D. E., & Brown, S. A. (2008) The study utilized the psychodynamic theory What are the classes of substance abuse relapse situations among adolescents and adults? There are identified substantial classes of substance abuse relapse situations among adolescents and adults. This study utilized the developmental, person-centered approach to a relapse, where it examined the latent class structure of relapse precursors in adolescents and adults. The adults who participated were 160 and adolescents 188 in substance abuse, and psychiatric treatment were followed up to 18 months after discharge to gather detailed information about their first relapse after treatment. The study results were that there different factors that led to relapse between adults and adolescents. The adult’s factors included social pressures and urge, negative and urge situations, while the adolescent factors were emotional and social pressure and interpersonal situations. The study concluded that developmental and clinical consideration should be considered in the treatment of clients with substance abuse diseases and comorbid psychopathology. The study recommends future studies to identify more causative factors leading to substance abuse treatment relapse among adults and, most importantly, adolescents. This study is essential for social workers in identifying the various factors that would trigger their substance abuse patients to relapse. By having such knowledge, the social workers will stay attentive to any such factors leading to relapse.



Ellis, B., Bernichon, T., Yu, P., Roberts, T., & Herrell, J. M. (2004 The study incorporated the psychosocial development theory What are the effects of social support on substance abuse relapse in a residential treatment setting for women?

There is a substantial impact of social support on substance abuse relapse in a residential treatment setting for women.

The study collected data from the center for substance abuse treatment’s national cross-site evaluation of the previous six months of residential treatment programs for pregnant women and those with children. The study results showed that clients with positive family relationships post-discharge were less likely to relapse than clients without such relationships. However, clients who reported negative activities by all or most friends in the post-discharge period were three and one-half times more likely to relapse than clients who did not report negative activities by all or most friends. Clients who reported that their spouses or significant others abused drugs and alcohol during the post-discharge period were more likely to relapse than clients who did not report spouses or significant others abusing drugs and alcohol during this period. The study concluded that social support and the quality of the social network have important effects on treatment outcomes. Additionally, the supportive post-treatment social network was identified as the key to minimizing the possibility of post-treatment relapse among mothers. The study recommends future studies to try and help clients to build healthy social support networks as part of their treatment programs since such could have broad implications for improving the future success of substance abuse treatment programs. Women are pretty sensitive people; therefore, social workers can use this study in identifying the triggers that can relapse among most women with children or those who are pregnant.


Sharma, A. K., Upadhyaya, S. K., Bansal, P., & Sharma, M. N. D. (2012). The study uses the psychodynamic theory. What are the factors affecting the relapse in substance abuse?

Significant factors are influencing the substance abuse relapse.

A cross-sectional study was planned to assess various factors determining relapse in substance abusers. Forty patients of substance abuse relapse were compared with 40 abstinent subjects as controls. All subjects were assessed on sociodemographic characteristics and history of substance abuse and then subjected to the Family typology scale, Family interaction scale, Presumptive stressful life events scale, Eysenck’s personality questionnaire, and Multi-dimensional scale of perceived social support. The study found that relapse was more in substance abusers of less than 30 years of age, those with lower educational and socioeconomic status, unemployed, having a family history of substance abuse, and a history of crime. Early age of onset of abuse and poor follow-up after detoxification were also associated with relapse and poor family and social support. The study concludes that it’s important to focus more on the factors affecting substance relapse among young adults of less than 30 years. The study recommended that future studies focus more on identifying the definite factors that led to substance abuse relapse among young adults across diverse societies. The social workers can use the information in this study in educating families regarding factors affecting their loved one substance abuse relapse.
Sharma, D., & Money, S. (2010) The article used the rational  choice theory What are the carryover effects to addiction–associated stimuli among marijuana and cocaine users?

There are substantial carryover effects to addiction–associated stimuli among a group of marijuana and cocaine users.

The study collected data from a sample that consisted of fifty-two participants between seventeen and sixty years. All participants were treated following the ethical standards of the British Psychological Association, and ethical approval was obtained from the Department of Psychology ethics committee. The study results main finding is that marijuana-associated non-words do not differ from non-marijuana-associated non-words when they are shown in an addiction Stroop task. The study concluded that marijuana and cocaine users differed in their performance on an addiction Stroop task where the stimuli were non-words associated in a prior learning phase to addiction or non-addiction-related images. The study recommends that future researchers use the current limitation as a basis for more investigation regarding the same topic. The study essential for substance abuse consolers in identifying the link between marijuana and cocaine.














Baturay, M. H., & Toker, S. (2019). Internet addiction among college students: Some causes and effects. Education and Information Technologies24(5), 2863-2885.

Frank, L. E., & Nagel, S. K. (2017). Addiction and moralization: The role of the underlying model of addiction. Neuroethics10(1), 129-139.

Jagannarayan, N., & Hegde, I. (2020). Causes of addiction among youngsters in—A study with special reference to Mumbai City. International Journal of Indian Psychology8(4), 1545-1558.

Kiran, S., Sanjana, J., & Reddy, N. J. (2019). Mobile Phone Addiction: Symptoms, Impacts and Causes-A Review. In Int Conf Trends Ind Value Eng Bus Soc Innov.

Nakaya, A. C. (2015). Internet and social media addiction. Webology12(2), 1-3.

Pepino, M. Y., Stein, R. I., Eagon, J. C., & Klein, S. (2014). Bariatric surgery‐induced weight loss causes remission of food addiction in extreme obesity. Obesity22(8), 1792-1798.








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