Culture and Public Plaza
This literature review is created to review how the culture of a city can dictate the establishment of the public plaza. It focuses on the literature prepared over the past half decades concerning public plazas. It uses articles and journals to gather the necessary information.
Culture defines how the public spaces are established in the city, and the physical appearance of the public spaces must embrace the social relation in the area of location. The landscape of the public plaza should not only be a representation of the community culture but also act as a symbol for the community and the city. Establishing the landscape of the public plaza is essential in sustaining the town’s culture and historical background. It is also vital in improving the quality of life in the city. The city square should develop the opportunity to unite the community and embrace the culture and history of the city.
This literature focuses on embracing the culture and history of city plazas in the United States by uniting the community through culture and design. Establishing public plazas where the general public and community members can interact is an essential part that improves the city’s success. Community participation is vital for a public plaza because if the interaction does not exist between the community members, it will not be necessary to develop the plazas.
This literature aims to analyze and review the different designs used in public plazas in the city. Other cities will use different types of designs in urban plazas depending on the city culture. Case studies are conducted on various plazas in the United States. The plazas of the survey include Louisiana and Sundance city plaza in Texas, Jackson Square in New Orleans.
This literature review will make a comparison on the history of the plaza in the area, community engagement, programming of the plaza, behavior of the users, and neighborhood condition.
History of the plaza
During the early 1970s, the United States cities had about 200 public spaces solely for pedestrians. These spaces had fixed seating and were generally wide-open and barren places that were not appealing to the community and the public. Such public plazas were located in New Orleans, Santa Louis, and Texas. Between 1980 to 2011, the local authorities created an additional pedestrian mall by closing the two barriers that blocked vehicular traffic along North 14th street. The local public had previously deemed the mall to be poor performing before taking measures to transform it into a combination of car traffic and pedestrian in 2010.
This photo below is a sample view of the public plazas of 1991, with no indication of serious activity and people.
Accessed; [5/7/2021] Retrieved; https://afropunk.com/2018/02/black-history-congo-square-new-orleans-heart-american-music/
Such plazas did not attract a mass population because they were located near government office buildings rather than in dining centers or bustling shopping.
Lacquement (2020) surveyed 291 public plazas near the office building of Manhattan and discussed with the architects and developers. He noted that the architectures and developers designed the public plazas to prevent specific kinds of people from using the plazas. The survey concluded that the public plazas were designed to attract certain people and discourage those considered undesirable.
Several pedestrian spaces have failed due to misunderstanding of the need of the users and poor placement. The public places did not have management, purpose, and a huge number of participants. Between 1990 and 2000, many of the pedestrian spaces established in the 1970s were converted to car traffic. Historically, these are the reasons why pedestrian plazas have a negative perception in the United States.
Unlike the United States, Europe has a rich and long history with pedestrian plazas. Feriel (2020) describes the pedestrian spaces as government forums, the hub of business, and public forums regardless of marketplaces, squares, or plazas. Feriel suggested that most European public plazas represent essential cultural significance, which is lacking in the United States. He also argued that every city in Europe had prioritized the establishment of public spaces that embrace the culture of the city and the surrounding communities.
Accessed; [5/7/2021] Retrieved; https://www.winetraveler.com/travel-resources/11-most-beautiful-european-squares/
However, in recent years globally, both in the United States and abroad, the relevance of public spaces in the community members has been connected to many social movements. Public spaces serve as construction to the environment, but it also creates the platform of sorts on which civic and democratic engagement are performed. In 2011, demonstrations were held in cities such as at Placa de Catalunya in Barcelona and at Pearl Square in Bahrain to protest against public plazas’ systematic marginalization (Neidig, 2020). The further author states that public plazas provide points for societal leveling for the general public and the communities. More footing usually happens between individuals when they are interacting with one another in the public realms.
Despite the stereotypic trait of the 1990s that all pedestrian spaces are associated with failure, since the early 2000s, the United States cities have enjoyed an increased interest in plans and projects that aim to scare the public from using public plazas for different purposes. Many cities in the United States changed their attitude towards improving the non-motorized system, such as advancing their efforts to plan for walking and biking. These plans did not only intend to ensure the putting up of better sidewalks and motorbike lanes but also prioritize strategies that would facilitate the development of the community as a whole. This report indicated that while many cities in the United States were implementing strategies to improve active transportation for the community and citizens, they also established more pedestrian spaces within the cities, which prompted many cities to reinforce the Complete Street Policies. Other researchers acknowledged that Open Street policies had been initiated due to the ever-increasing public awareness concerning public plazas. These programs involved concurrent programming and temporary road-closure and also the installation of park-lets, which refers to the small parks created in empty parking spaces along the curb.
All these projects focus on the movement of sorts among the local authority’s department, the citizens’ desire to reclaim their streets, and all the pavements currently used by car in the movement to be renovated to promote a diverse set of activities. Even though all the pedestrian spaces and malls established in the U.S. cities in the 1960s and 1970s are stereotyped to be failure-bound since their development, architects and planners are reestablishing how best public spaces could be designed to serve pedestrians. The public spaces are projected to be consistent with the culture of the communities surrounding the cities. The thesis of his literature review is fully consistent with this area of inquiry. Though United Sate had never prioritized establishing a public plaza of good quality for its citizens, the local authorities began to shift their minds regarding this perception. They are making efforts to improve the streets with a public plaza to popularize the roads.
Culture of Public Spaces
To improve the understanding of the role of public spaces in the United States cities, this literature review examines the sociology of the public areas. Though only a few pieces of literature has focused on the sociology and culture of the specific type of plazas discussed in the thesis, this review was able to identify some articles and journals that discuss a different kind of public plazas in the cities of the United States.
Among the several urbanists that studied the cultural framework in the setting of public plazas, Ziyaee (2018) believes that he has explored some of the essentials that will improve the success of public plazas in the cities. Ziyaee utilized time-lapse photography to study pedestrian behavior and street life in New York and several other cities in the United States. In his explanation of the cultural aspects of the public plaza, he stipulated that mixed utilization of public spaces is an essential aspect for the success of a public plaza. Ziyaee believed that placement of food vendors near the location of public plazas would attract people into the public spaces, but when the vendors are thrown out of the spaces, the life within the public spaces is likely to reduce. Apart from the food vending within the public spaces, cultural arts can also attract a large crowd to visits the public spaces. Ziyaee identified few individuals walking into the plazas and stopped them from discussing the large public plaza located in the Chase Manhattan Plaza in New York. Ziyaee noticed that most of the public plazas in the United States are multifunctional and use designs that reflect the community’s historical background within which the city is located. Ziyaee came up with the Triangulation concept as an essential aspect in social interaction within the public plazas. This refers to the situation where public spaces provide some external stimuli to link two or more different people and chat with one another as if they knew each other before.
Accessed; [5/7/2021] Retrieved; https://www.coventgarden.london/experience/street-performers/
For instance, this is evident in various city plazas where a street performer utilizes interesting shows with lights or video that attract the attention of others in the public spaces. This experience revolving around art installation and street performers could see people who previously had been passing one another without interacting to unite and know each other. In this way, the public plazas act as a platform to promote social interaction and connect people over the experiences shared at the plazas.
Lack of multifunctional activities is a vital aspect that contributed to the failures of the 1970s public plazas in the United States cities. However, this literature review believes that the recommendations of Ziyaee applied more to especially the large plazas in the towns of the United States that were common during the 20th century. These spaces can hold various programming than the pedestrian plaza discussed earlier in the plaza history in this review. This literature review argues that the small pedestrian plazas in the United States cities cannot embrace the programming level that Ziyaee recommended. This aspect is studied later in the case study of the cities.
Another urbanist who studied this topic was Garcia-Hernandez (2017). Rather than exploring the cultural aspects that should be included in the public plaza to attract the public’s attention, Garcia-Hernandez (2017) stipulated that public spaces are becoming fewer because people are turning to their home spaces. He explored the need for public plazas free of charge and created the opportunity for social interaction. In his view, pedestrian plazas provide a platform for people who intend to socialize outside their workplace or home. The public plaza benefits everyone visiting the site because they do not place a charge on the public. When designed in an inviting way for universal access, Garcia-Hernandez suggested that such plazas provide the platform for the community to come together. It can be noted that both Ziyaee and Garcia-Hernandez agree on the role of public plazas and a space that promotes the culture of social interaction among the members of the society.
Public plazas can bring together the community members, according to Eden et al. (2017). Eden and his colleagues believe that public spaces reduce congestion and help the environment, but they can also reestablish the street to become a community-building space. His co-author, Nanchen, even went as far as stating that healthy and active public plazas in the city are indicators of sustainable cultural practices among the community and citizens.
Eden even went further as echoing the recommendations of Ziyaee by describing a good public plaza as having a combination of entertainment, business, and culture. The focus on mixed utilization of spaces makes sense because Eden witnessed the development of the various institutions from street level, the built environment, and interaction culmination between culture, business, people, and institution. Therefore, it can be noted that culturally-oriented public plazas are successful when situated in areas that are accessible and open and have high population density.
Case Study of plazas in different cities
To understanding how different U.S. cities have improved the public plaza programs, online research was conducted. The program involves transforming roadways that are underutilized into public spaces for social and cultural interaction. The samples of the cities used to perform this case study had limited established public plaza programs. The sorting of the public plaza programs was done based on the ones with a history of construction, dedicated website, and other supporting plazas, and indicate a high level of research and intention behind the evaluation and practice displayed through their online platform. The case studies were created on the following public plazas based on the research.
The survey used questioners to do the study. As a result, proximity cost was incurred in the process.
To gather essential information regarding each of the plaza programs before starting the interview, this review researched background information about all the four cities’ programs. The research on the background information was essential in framing the interview questions and helped to acquire additional information necessary to separate the information obtained from the interview. A combination of newspaper articles, the public plaza program website, and the city report were evaluated to answer the research questions.
The U.S. does not have national surveys that are responsible for monitoring the quality of the public spaces. Therefore, anecdotal evidence and ad hoc survey are the main tools for assessing public plazas in the four cities above. This review focused on public plazas such as parks and city centers. Additionally, the data used in this research are quite updated. An extensive survey was conducted on 100 local authorities regarding the current quality of the public spaces in the cities. A questionnaire was used in the survey. A series of negative and positive responses were reported regarding the state of the public plaza in the four cities.
This review describes the process and structure that has enable public structures to exist in the four cities. The first theme explains how public plazas embrace the culture of the community. The second theme describes that the partnership between the city department and community partner organization has promoted public plazas in the four cities. The third theme explains the plaza program’s application, which ensures whether the inclusion of community partners will ensure successful maintenance and promotion of the plazas. The fourth theme describes the community partners are responsible for creating events in the public spaces.
The city planners interviewed in this literature reported that the public plazas in the cities intend to improve pedestrian circulation and safety, utilize the abandoned land, use the city streets and maintain the continuity of the community culture. New York aims to create a quality public plaza for the residents by ensuring they reside within a ten-minute walk.
Accessed; [5/7/2021] Retrieved; http://www.street-plans.com/news-post/project-page/reflections-on-10-years-of-the-nyc-plaza-program/
Permanency is where the goals of the cities differ. For instance, New York intends to utilize capital construction to make the temporary public plazas permanent. At the same time, New Orleans uses a case-by-case basis to treat every plaza and will not make their plazas permanent; instead it will leave the plazas in their temporary state. Texas intentionally established a temporary public plaza to create public space while the park nearby was under maintenance.
In all cities under the study, the initial phase to develop a public plaza starts with community partners who channel their opinion to the city. Under the partnership model, the community organizations and the government departments work together to maintain and create public plazas.
The community partners use community visioning to identify where there is a need for a public plaza. In the case of Texas, Sundance square plaza was developed through community visioning. From the plan, the organization identified Forth worth where they intended to create the Texas public plaza. Sundance square plaza was designed inconsistent with the culture of the city of Texas. Each of the other case study cities also used a similar process and design to develop the public plazas through a community organization.
The cities intend to create an existing public plaza in the neighborhood, complementing the proposed plaza and the assistance by the adjacent land use. However, some requirements were not similar for all the four cities, such as considering emergency access, minimum size expected of the intended public plaza, and the speed limit for cars on the nearby roadways. Still, these differences had no negative impact on the implementation of the programs across all the cities.
All the cities had the website for their public plaza attached to the application forms alongside contact information and timelines. The cities adopted a structured application process for the establishment of the programs.
Application material included photos of the existing sites, community stakeholders, maintenance, initial design plan, proof of insurance, and financial information.
Upon approval of the community application, they enter a contract with the city and a clear distribution of responsibilities between them. All the four cities in the case study have a similar distribution of responsibilities between the city agencies and the community partners. The community organization oversees the maintenance of the public plaza. This includes power washing, regular cleaning, and bringing removal furniture daily. Additionally, furnishing the plaza is also the responsibility of the community partners. The organizations would prefer using materials endorsed by other urbanist projects, such as using movable tables and seating, designating the plaza using paints, and planting trees around the plaza.
Accessed; [5/7/2021] Retrieved; https://www.tripsavvy.com/take-a-tour-of-jackson-square-1605145
This review provided much evidence regarding public plazas indicating that urban parks significantly contribute to the urban economy and urban life.
The positive results for all the case study cities included the following; significant capital improvement within the public plaza, each public plaza had a manager, the public spaces are under the watch of the local authorities on a frequent and regular basis, lighting of the public spaces to minimize crimes, the public spaces swept at least thrice a day and he local authorities providing grants for shop front improvements (Gregg, 2019).
The negative findings reported for the case study cities included; some shopping streets are cleaned, the local authorities had no intention to maintain the public spaces, it has been long since the last capital investment in the public plazas in the city, there is no security policies such as CCTV installation and finally, the local authority do not allocate a budget to improve the public spaces.
Conclusively, the literature review indicates that there is extensive information regarding the funding and condition of public spaces in the case study cities. In both cases, whether exhaustive or anecdotal, the improvement in the public spaces’ condition is pointed. The effective management strategies and promotion of the city’s culture seem to be the dominant reason for the sustainability of the public spaces. Therefore, extensive research and investigation are required to establish this issue. At the local level, the users are provided with sufficient consistent published data regarding the public plaza.
Having established inadequate data regarding the condition of public plazas in New York, New Orleans, San Francisco, and Texas, there are increasing chances of acquiring proper information in the future. Additionally, more information regarding the components of the public plaza is increasingly becoming available due to the Headline Indicators of Sustainability initiative. The quality of life indicators has been examined and found to be relevant to public plazas. This has two main importance. Firstly, it establishes the relationship between a good life and the local environment, and secondly, it offers a tool for creating a better public plaza. Based on the quality of life indicators, there are environmental and social factors that directly relate to plazas; however, there is a lack of economic indicators that are directly relevant.
Community partners are primarily responsible for programming at the plazas; however, city agencies could also help to inform the public. Manshel (2020) added that despite the help from the city agencies, the community organization is still the sole body that spread the information to the community about the plaza concerning the programs and events. Programming is incredibly diverse with concerts, movie nights, chessboard, yoga classes, and farmers market.
Every individual interviewed in this literature review talked about various programming types that occur at the public plazas and how influential they are to embracing the culture of the community. However, the director of Louisiana and Sundance city plaza in Texas emphasized how the plazas should self-activate, insisting on developing spaces that would attract the mass public without necessary programming events to create areas where people would come if events are programmed.
Only one community organization interviewed in this literature review lacked programming at their plaza. The director of San Francisco’s pavement program discussed their interim plaza, which was created to temporarily provide public space services to the residents when the local park was under renovation. He stated that the plaza did not have programmed events, and it was created as a place where people can eat their takeaway foods or as a spot to socialize and interact with friends. The plaza has supported the culture of the city since its creation.
The cities have established a strong relationship with the community partners, and the community partners in the three cities have also created a strong relationship with the local authority, including residents and businesses it serves. In the United States, urban and rural development have increasingly changed over the past decade. Development companies have become more complex, more extensive, and powerful. They have to use the new technologies of construction and are also becoming less numerous. International and national agencies are financing the projects of the development of public plazas consistent with the culture of the city of location. Some developers deem public plazas as a commodity and have neglected the emotional and cultural aspects of the public spaces in the process (Latham & Layton, 2019).
Consequently, there has also been a drastic change in designing of the public spaces. This trend has established the understanding of the relevance of public plazas that respond to the cultural needs of the people. Civic spaces are partially responsible for the increasing interest in city marketing strategies, town center management, urban design, and quality of life issues. Hence, this literature review focuses on promoting public plazas that embrace the area’s culture.
Accessed; [5/7/2021] Retrieved; https://globaldesigningcities.org/publication/global-street-design-guide/streets/pedestrian-priority-spaces/pedestrian-plazas/case-study-plaza-program-new-york-city-usa/
The 24-hour city is good management that the local authority in the four cities has implemented to attract the public when a plaza has no programmed events. For instance, the New York City plaza program has some successful developed public plazas in operation night and day. Streets, squares, and cafes are integrated to live with watching, sitting regularly, and walking (Zekavat & Dehghan, 2017). The local authority has also implemented policies that encourage the establishment of outdoor cafes. This literature review established that enforcement of liquor and public entertainment licensing enforcement have previously undermined the city lives of the people. But currently, the local authorities in public plazas are making an effort to improve the social interaction in the public plazas.
Using CCTV is another technique that has been implemented in public plazas to respond to the lack of programmed events. All the four public plazas discussed in this literature review have been installed in public spaces such as telephone boxes. The use of CCTV was initially associated with a large commercial shopping mall; however, the technique has been adopted in the public plaza sector. The use of CCTV has been adopted as a strategic response to the perceived and actual crime in the public spaces. The public space can eventually become places where business and retail shops can thrive without fear of looting and theft. The increase in surveillance in the public areas in New York and Texas is likely to make more people visit the spaces because of the assured security.
Various practice guidelines have been created to sensitize the public and professionals concerning the components of an ideal public space. Some of this has focused on green space, some on town centers, and some on residential areas. The findings stipulated that public places that are well legible, robust, integrated, and viable of the local identity are likely to perform well. Urban design principles have been refined to create a kind of urban form known as home zones.
The behavior of People in Plazas
Analyst Plaza (2020) analyzed the overall pedestrian turnover in different public plazas in the U.S. between two weeks. The author noted that pedestrian counts tend to increase around midday, especially between 12 pm and 2 pm during the two weeks of analysis. The highest record of attendance was recorded in the public plaza during these hours of the day. This lunch hour attendance is consistent with the thesis. In contrast, people do not only visit the plaza during lunch hours, but they also stay for a prolonged period, sitting on the ledges or ledges and enjoying a lunch break. Observation also confirmed this finding that behavior was small groups of people or individuals enjoying their meals and socializing. Though the second week indicated a significant increase in the events of sit, the total pedestrian count was still higher due to an increase in the number of students present in the plazas.
This entire review used the interaction of authors with plaza through the location of graduate programs in the four case study cities. Through interaction through casual observation, conservation with others, and with spaces, it was evident that people had different ideas regarding the public plazas because of their politics and prominence surrounding its alteration and construction. The most prevalent behavior of people is the high number of people walking up the plaza to sit while moving around the plaza.
Another analyst, Mao & Kinoshita (2019), suggested that many participants were coming to the plaza, especially during the warm months when a group of people gathers to chat, and people come for a lunch break to eat. Observation on the general behavior and travel was continuously done, including winter months.
Accessed; [5/7/2021] Retrieved; https://gehlpeople.com/
The authors frequently visited the plaza, and the deliberate observation enabled information to be collected daily for a week during this time. The casual word allowed the author to video record the spatial behavior of the public in the plaza during different seasons of the year.
After the general overview, the behaviors in the public plaza were identified as indicated.
The first week recorded an increase in pedestrian count in the plazas between 1 pm and 2 pm. 24TH September, Saturday had the lowest pedestrian count going down to a mere 260 between 6 pm and 7 pm. The average temperature of the week was 76 degrees, with Friday recording a temperature of 83 degrees.
Low number of people come to the plaza during the morning and in the evening, with most people coming to the plaza mostly during midday. The authors argued that the high pedestrian count in the plaza during the midday hours could be a result of people coming to have their lunch at the plaza from the nearby campuses and buildings.
Tammikakul (2019) also analyzed seating behaviors in the public plaza. Due to inconsistency in pedestrian count coming to the plaza, pausing and sitting behaviors were also analyzed for two weeks. Like in the pedestrian count, the number of pausing and sitting events seems high during the midday hours, especially during the lunch hours throughout the analysis. This consistency with lunch hours supports the thesis that public plaza should provide essentials to the community.
Community Engagement in the Public Plazas
Public plazas are connected to the use of transport and the way transport serves the public spaces significantly affects its usability, quality, and viability. Yang (2019) stipulated that good public space depends on the accessibility of its different catchment areas consistent with its purpose and size. The research found that light rail in the U.S. is the most harmonious with the pedestrian, free from pollution and low noise. Buses also provide the services as the light rail, but they cannot match the quality provided by the light rail. On this basis, access to systems of public transport that are convenient, noise-free, regular, and comfortable significantly contribute to an excellent public plaza.
However, the literature also acknowledges the adverse effects of a poor local environment on cycling and public use. The review established that many people in the U.S. were using buses due to lack of information and poor interchange environment. The research established that many people usually walk to the public spaces 80%. It was noted that 40% of the participants in the public spaces visit such places for their proximity and convenient location. Few people were reported to be coming to the park by cars but they tend to stay longer. This kind of visitors were majorly women.
The developers of public and private sectors are usually concerned with improving the public spaces for economic purposes. Based on value design, this literature review established that successful public plazas accumulate economic benefits to direct investors and indirectly benefit the local society and community (environmental and social). Public spaces have ecological, recreational, and psychological benefits (Aronson et al.,2017). However, there is no correlation between increased value (environmental, economic, and social) and better public spaces. Though public spaces tend to increase value, it increases the cost to a greater extent in some cases.
The economic objective of public spaces cannot be met if the improvement of the public spaces excludes environmental and social values. This is according to the argument of Deore & Lathia (2019). The literature established that the economic viability of new public spaces in the U.S. excluded the social benefits. This led to socially exclusive public spaces. Thus, various people did not perceive the space to be social and public exclusive.
The literature review found that good urban design increases value through delivering environmental and social benefits. A good local environment partially depends on the appropriate urban design, hence indicate the relationship between environment, economy, and society regarding the public spaces. The good urban design increases economic value by generating high returns on investments, reducing management, offering benefits to local workers, and managing security and energy costs. Good urban design improves environmental and social value by establishing accessible and socially inclusive public spaces, boosting civic pride, improving security and safety within and beyond the public spaces, revitalizing urban heritage, and less.
The review also found that a well-maintained, planned, and implemented urban spaces improvement can positively influence the trading performance of occupiers of the city, though this could be realized after 2-3 years. Urban design improvement is important for developers seeking to manage the spaces they are developing polluting development.
Recommendation and Future Research
Although the oldest public space program listed in this literature started as late as 2008, these programs have enjoyed steady growth in a short period because they focus on embracing the culture of the community. However, some of the interview feedback has enabled this literature review to develop some recommendations for these programs and others.
This literature recommends establishing a city ordinance that streamlines event planning and community partner application for the plazas. The desire to simplify the process of community partner application was emphasized by almost everybody interviewed.
Another recommendation is that the cities that develop plaza program goals, applications, and guidelines should introduce equity throughout the program from the start-up period. Some cities view equity as an aspect of checking off on planning documents but not as an element that should be integrated into the plan at the initial stage of the program. The cities discussed in this review only realized that there was no equity in plaza placement throughout the city after operating for some years. Indeed, this is an important area for future research, but cities should be careful to avoid such issues in the future.
A public plaza in the U.S. has established itself to ensure they offer consistent services with the culture of the people. Public spaces improve the arrangement of space and also focus on rural improvement. Their support, structure, and uses contribute to critical issues concerning urban planning. The public spaces in the U.S. are generally viewed as a picture of the town and financial incentive. Without public spaces, it is challenging to develop a mental and physical association in the middle of the urban and general environment. The public spaces in the U.S. require reinforcement to meet other cities’ standard of public spaces in the United States. This will require the collaboration of the local authority, stakeholders, and transport operators.
Deore, P., & Lathia, S. (2019). Streets as public spaces: Lessons from street vending in Ahmedabad, India. Urban Planning, 4(2), 138-153.
Yang, L., Van Dam, K. H., Majumdar, A., Anvari, B., Ochieng, W. Y., & Zhang, L. (2019). Integrated design of transport infrastructure and public spaces considering human behavior: A review of state-of-the-art methods and tools. Frontiers of Architectural Research, 8(4), 429-453.
Tammikakul, P., & Raksawin, K. (2019). The Pattern of Activity Analysis by GIS in Chiang Mai Public Plaza, Thailand. Asian Journal of Environment-Behaviour Studies, 4(13), 30-44.
Manshel, A. M. (2020). PROGRAMMING PUBLIC SPACES. In Learning from Bryant Park (pp. 93-113). Rutgers University Press.
Eden, G., Nanchen, B., Ramseyer, R., & Evéquoz, F. (2017, May). On the road with an autonomous passenger shuttle: integration in public spaces. In Proceedings of the 2017 CHI conference extended abstracts on human factors in computing systems (pp. 1569-1576).
Ziyaee, M. (2018). Assessment of urban identity through a matrix of cultural landscapes. Cities, 74, 21-31.
García-Hernández, M., la Calle-Vaquero, D., & Yubero, C. (2017). Cultural heritage and urban tourism: Historic city centres under pressure. Sustainability, 9(8), 1346.
Neidig, J. (2020). CONTESTING URBAN PUBLIC SPACE AS COMMONS-A study on the common usage of public parks in Barcelona-Sants.
Feriel, C. (2020). The Revolution That Never Was? Pedestrianization in a Transnational Perspective, Europe and North America (1960s–1980s). Journal of World History, 31(4), 761-783.
Zalewski, A., & Fiszer-Sozanska, J. (2019, February). Influence of Cycling Infrastructure on the Transformations of Public Spaces in Cities and Agglomerations. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (Vol. 471, No. 9, p. 092067). IOP Publishing.
Gregg, K. (2019). Pedestrianized Streets–From Shopping to Public Space: The History and Evolution of Pedestrianization In North America From Modernism to Contemporary (Doctoral dissertation, University of Toronto (Canada)).
Aronson, M. F., Lepczyk, C. A., Evans, K. L., Goddard, M. A., Lerman, S. B., MacIvor, J. S., … & Vargo, T. (2017). Biodiversity in the city: key challenges for urban green space management. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 15(4), 189-196.
Plaza, J., Palacios, C., Sánchez-García, M., Criado, M., Nieto, J., & Sánchez, N. (2020). Monitoring Spatial Behavior of Pastoralist Sheep Through GPS, LIDAR Data and Vnir Image. The International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, 43, 169-175.
Mao, M., & Kinoshita, I. (2019). Public Plazas Physical Environment Affect People’s Activities in the Cases of China and the USA. Asian Journal of Behavioural Studies, 4(15), 51-75.
Lacquement, C. H. (2020). Physical modifications to late prehistoric plazas in the southeast U.S. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 58, 101164.
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We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.
You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.Read more
Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.Read more
Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.Read more
Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.Read more
By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.Read more