An Introduction to Christian Theology Report



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“An Introduction to Christian Theology”

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“An Introduction to Christian Theology” Report

In the Lay of the Christian Land, there exist over four thousand religions in the World. Based on statistical data recorded in 2015, the largest religious group with the highest believers was Christianity, with an average of 31.2% of the World’s total population. The Islamic religion has an average of 24.1%, and unaffiliated has 16%, Hinduism 15.1%, and Buddhism 6.9%. The focus of the source document is not based on a discussion of the nature of religious commitment or how one religion relates to the other, but rather focus of the source document entails the existence of various belief systems, sacred texts, and rites or rituals among different religions. All of these are significant to theology, which has often been defined as the study of God. Theology is not entirely on Christianity; thus, there exists Islamic theology, Christian theology, Hindu theology, Buddhist theology. Just as someone can refer to Islam theory as beliefs, practices, and approaches that Muslims have concerning God, it is the same manner in which other religious theology can describe their thoughts and strategies on their Supreme. The lay of the Christian Land entails comprehensive analysis and understanding of Christianity, particularly on terms, movement, and ideas about Christianity.

The three traditions of Christianity

As previously asserted, Christianity has more adherents than any other religion in the Universe. There exist variant commitment, but also there exists disparity on what kind of Christianity Christians adhere to. These groups are often regarded as branches or traditions; currently, there exist three major Christian traditions. These traditions were listed based on the size in 2015. Roman catholic has a percentage of 50.1% of the total Christian population, a protestant, and has 36.7% of the entire Christian population; it comprises nondenominational and independent churches. The last tradition is Orthodox communion that has to occupy twelve percent. This includes Greek and Russian Orthodox. All these traditions have their history, and the source document analyzes what might have caused disagreements that resulted in a split or schisms in the church.

The first schism had taken place between the western church, commonly referred to as Roman Catholic and Eastern Churches, often regarded as orthodox. The second schism occurred in the west that brought about the start of protestant churches as they split away from the Roman Catholic Church. There is a tendency for adherents to a single tradition in Christianity and view those believing in other practices with suspicion and disrespect. For example, at some point in time, there exist instances that adhered to the Protestant tradition, claiming that the Roman Catholics have a deficient view of the significance of the Bible, to the extent that it excludes them from being regarded as true Christians. These counterattacks between these traditions are common, and no person can believe that these groups belong to one religion under Christianity. These counter-accusations between these traditions only do more harm than good and causes these tradition to drift more than ever before.  Christianity has its basis on the gospel of Christ, the God coming to earth, His betrayal, and death on the cross, resurrection to restore the broken relationship between human beings and God. This forms the foundation for all Christianity.

Roman Catholic and Orthodox Christianity


Christianity came into existence in the Roman Empire. The geographical boundaries of the empire provide a reasonable basis in the manner that it helps ascertain the geographical division which existed between western Christianity and eastern Christianity. These two groups grew in distinct areas of the empire and confronted different challenges. This resulted in the two developing other worship practices, patterns of church authority, the existence of variant theological emphasis. During the eleventh century, differences and disagreements between these two groups had intensified and later resulted in an open schism. Although these groups had a standard gospel message at the originality, they developed distinct religious and political climates. They also developed different orientations.

There were various historical justifications why Rome came out as significant in church. It was the city where the two most crucial Christian leaders, Paul and Peter, were martyred. Rome had a large church, and it had developed a good reputation based on the fact that it supported other churches, although there was a more distinct theological basis for the centrality of Rome in the early church. It is crucial to look closely at four theological reasons for Rome’s centrality in the early church.

Reputation for Orthodoxy

Apostle Peter and Peter originally started a church existing in Rome, and these two people were the leaders of early Christianity. It gave it apostolic credentials. The developed credentials were strengthened throughout the theological controversies that existed in the fourth and fifth centuries. The church that was situated at Roman was often on the side of prevailing. It gave the western church leaders a strong belief that they were uniquely upholding apostolic mandates. The Roman church started to refer itself as the “Apostolic See.” In this context, the word sees used meant “chair” and specifically referred to the chair upon which Apostle Peter sat to give teachings.

Apostolic succession

Each bishop in the church was viewed as apostolic, and this meant a successor to the apostles based on the kind of teaching they ought to teach. The idea behind it was that the apostles had passed a mandate to their successors, who were a bishop in a church.

The Theological Context of Two: Evangelicalism


Evangelical refers to descriptors used by people, though often applied by journalists to describe any group that appears “enthusiastic, aggressive or in a simple way, people who seem missionary-minded. In the source document, evangelicals are deemed as narrow-minded individuals. In the sixteenth century, the Protestant Reformation in Western Europe forms the basis of identity for entire protestant groups, including those regarded as evangelicals. To have a comprehensive understanding of what evangelical means, the source document gave illustration through an example. If one goes to Switzerland and eastern France, some churches still have evangelicals on their names. Being an evangelical is not similar to being affiliated within a particular dominion, such as Mennonite or Presbyterian, nor does it mean being evangelical is similar to adherents to Christian tradition, like catholic, Orthodox, or Protestant. za            d-+

This is because evangelical is more of modifying rather than denomination, tradition, or theological system. Evangelicalism emphasizes specific theological themes, which can be seen in several Christian denominations and traditions. Historians of evangelicalism have regarded this emphasis of particular theological themes as the controlling motifs or essentials. Various research, such as that conducted by Bebbington, showed that, indeed, getting a precise definition of evangelicalism is impossible; it simply means that it is a very diverse movement. It means that people use the word in various ways that are not similar and give different meanings.


Can Christianity Read the Bible Alone?

The majority of Christians understand that the Bible is the only resource to ascertain whether some live a Christian life and safeguard the correct Christian doctrine. The majority of Christians would then answer the question that Christians follow only the Bible for their faith and life. It acts as a guide that decides what is right and that which is correct. There exist a wrong preposition on Bible, in a manner that someone ought to read the Bible, but do not need to interpret its content, it means wording of the Bible should be given their literal meaning based on statements, and someone should not make an attempt to solve to convener a message that they feel is right. Interpretation of the Bible is believed to complicate things; therefore, as Christians are reading the Bible, they should read words and avoid their performance. Attempt to read the Bible without recognizing our background is to be in denial or an attempt to move away from our locatedness, which we cannot move away from.

Protestant Reformers translations that were popular did not imply that individuals were to comprehend Bible scriptures apart from the teaching and guidance of trained ministers. When Protestants started reading Bible translations in their languages and beginning to take education more seriously than before, Luther became uncomfortable with specific interpretations that were being made. Although the Bible is required to be read as it is, the reality remains that it cannot be read without understanding because it is translated in different ways, so escaping its translation might not be possible. Bible is prone to interpretation.

There exist a faulty proposition two; tradition is corrupt. Concerns on tradition in theology are essential. A section of Protestants brings an idea of an opposition between Protestants and Catholics on practice. Protestants are brought out as those choosing scripture over tradition; on the other hand, Catholics are portrayed to be selecting tradition over scripture. Those who decide scripture over ceremony will be regarded as a “Bible-believing Christian,” while those who choose to choose tradition over scripture will be labeled as Roman Catholic.

Scripture and Tradition


James Montgomery Boice was a renowned evangelical pastor whose defense of biblical authority will be remembered. In his defense of biblical authority, Boice asserts appeals to the 17th-century reformers, “unique boldness.” According to him, reformers believed that God spoke to them directly through scripture. It was foundational to their strong belief in sola scriptura that stressed that scripture is its interpreter. Based on the, there would be no need for councils to claim that they assist in biblical interpretation; the Bible is wholly what Christians need. Boice appeals to reformers to bring reformation as a battle between scripture, reformers position and tradition, and the Roman Catholic position. Since reformers were focusing more on the Bible, to be the only source of theology, they are expressed as restoring the lost biblical mandate to the church. The critical disparity between the Protestant position and the Roman Catholic stand at the reformation is when questions on norms are asked. Thus the crucial question would be, “how what is permanently binding to be distinguished from that, in need of revision or reformation?” For Roman Catholics, the criteria was the apostolic tradition expressed in magisterium teachings.

An introduction To Modernism and Postmodernism

From Evangelical assumptions of the 1960s and 1970s, there existed various reforms that have occurred from then. First, it is scarce to see people wearing their Sunday best attire to attend Sunday services. Previously, people cherished Sunday masses, and it was a day that people believed that it was a day to put on a particular cloth that was deemed to be the best. Although things are challenged and nowadays, it is rare to see believers talking about going to church in their best Sunday dress. Even pastors have opted to be casual nowadays. Evangelicals have transitioned from the “give God your best” attitude to an attitude of “God takes me as I am; this can be seen in the manner in which people tend to dress and treat religion more casually, owing to their belief that God accepts all as they are and His concern is with the Soul and not how ones dress.

Secondly, it has become hard to find an Evangelical church that holds Sunday evening services. It has a norm that went as modernization took the part side of most of our social lives. While there is both theological and practical justification for these changes, the source document’s purpose is not to indicate transition itself. Two changes that have been mentioned above are not earth-shattering, neither are they surprising. Evangelicalism’s historical background depicts the movement’s tremendous ability to respond and adapt to continuous cultural changes. As time goes, years pass, technology and modernization come in place and tend to change people’s traditions and handle and conduct themselves. These changes are based on modernization and the urge to adapt to changes.


The Metanarrative of Reason

In 1979, one of the best-known phrases that describe postmodern emerged—the French original for metanarratives, which would mean grand narrative when translated. The postmodern condition started concerning the prestige of modernized scientific knowledge, which has often been regarded to conflict with records. Making phrases to scientific knowledge meant a global autonomous reason, and based on this vintage assertion, narrative knowledge does not measure up. When a comparison is made between scientific knowledge and narrative knowledge, narrative knowledge is a more simple accumulation of facts. It simply entails a question of competence going above a mere determination and application of criteria of truth. Therefore, one of the characteristics of narrative knowledge is that it grants or instills competence-building measures, allowing us to make better statements. That which is good is ascertained by its stature in social circle or speaker’s culture.

One of the distinctions between scientific and narrative knowledge is that narrative is traditional and based on culture. It has been viewed to be both Pre-modern and postmodern. The reports that a particular society gives did not require any authorization. Based on these, the primary source document provides a comprehensive historical analysis of theological concepts as it attempts to elaborate on the history of religion and various ideas in theology. It is, therefore, a critical document that serves its purpose.








Inglis, J. (2005). Medieval philosophy and the classical tradition: in Islam, Judaism, and Christianity. Routledge.

Milbank, J. (2008). Theology and social theory: Beyond secular reason. John Wiley & Sons.

Nodet, E., & Taylor, J. (2000). The Origins of Christianity (Book Review). Theological Studies61(3), 556.

Peel, J. D. Y. (2016). Christianity, Islam, and Orisa-religion: Three traditions in comparison and interaction. Oakland^ ECA CA: University of California Press.

Siegel, H. (2008). Cultivating reason. Критика и хуманизъм, (26), 43-58.













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